The social problems that urbanization and industrialized in the late 19th century created was slums. “Forty-two men and women in a room not more than twelve feet square, and in the corner on a heap of dirty straw lay a woman with a newborn babe” (Related Document 1, pg. 275). Immigrants were living in an overcrowded tenement and having to pay high rent. They lack access to clean water for drinking, garbage and sewage system.
Which leads into the effects on the citizens, such as China and India, and the lack of proper housing and accommodations with such a rapidly growing population. Davis then goes into many statistics on the increase of GDP and population since 2000 globally, as well as examples of extreme urban growth in India and throughout Africa. In the second chapter, Davis focuses his argument on the prevalence of slums and the conditions that most slums worldwide contain. Davis also provides a compiled graph of the largest slum populations by country, some to name a few are: China, India, Turkey, Peru, USA, and Ethiopia. He also goes into three main themes to the increase of slums, inner city poverty, pirate urbanization, and invisible renters.
Slums are squalid and overcrowded urban streets or districts inhabited by very poor people. All slums have different living conditions. Housing in slums is built on land that the occupant does not have legal ownership to and without any urban planning or obedience to zoning control. In slums, misconduct and bankruptcy are high. These settlements lack water, sanitation, garbage systems, storm drainage, street lighting, paved sidewalks, and roads for emergency access.
In the Third World, it is not difficult to discover the large-scaled slum at the rural-urban fringe of every city. Take Mumbai, an Indian city with four slums, into consideration. As a result of flows of citywards migrations, the growing rate of urban population outpaced that of development of the city. The limited infrastructure forced the migrants to live in the slums. Dharavi, one of the four slums in Mumbai is residentially dense with 800,000 people in more than 2,000 huts (Gruber, Kirschner, Mill, Schach, Schmekel & Seligman, 2005).
In Mike Davis’s book, Planet of Slums, slums are referred to as categorized by a mixture of dilapidated housing, overcrowding, disease, poverty, informal housing, inadequate access to safe water and sanitation, and insecurity of tenure (Davis, 22). Davis states that these slum conditions are commonly found all over the world in urban poor populations, but not all slums are considered to be poor. There are about 25% of urbanites that live in ‘absolute’ poverty, somehow surviving to as low as one dollar or sometimes even less per day (Davis 25). What are some of the leading causes and reasons for increasing slums? Davis makes the argument that the State has an impact on the growth of slums specifically beginning in the 1950’s and 1960’s
With high unemployment rates, the expansion of informal settlements and the neglect of basic human rights, one of India’s megacities, Mumbai, is a good representation of these social divisions. Incorporating analysis’s from material provide in the Development and the City course at the University of Guelph, it is believed that a significant issues is the means to which governments invests in their people. Within cities, municipal governments are often more interested in modernizing than addressing the major structural concerns mentioned above. Furthermore, social inequalities do not just expand across cities, rather this is a problem that engulf the entire nation, which Boo also points to. This can especially be seen when
It received a millions visitors every years in various sector such as in tourism, construction industry, bussiness, education and many more. The homelessness problem effect to be an “eyesore” for the city of Kuala Lumpur. Reported from Astro Awani (July 5, 2014) homeless people in Kuala Lumpur, only 10 percent of homeless persons on the streets of Kuala Lumpur are non-Malaysians. It’s means that 90 percent of them are in fact are locals and come across Malaysia, not only from Kuala Lumpur itself and with different ethnicities, age groups and education
Therefore, Somalia has many stories behind their existence. Despite of its unique ethnicities and cultures, the region has a long problem of food shortage. Food shortage is a disaster of food production that cannot achieve the demand of need. Whereas, the people in Somalia suffers from great famine in the country. This situation occurs because of severe circumstance in the region.
The prevalence of child labor meant that the poor could not receive an education to enable them to get better, skilled jobs. The levels of violence were high, including the number of murders in the city. These were all the worst effects of urbanization in America. The centers of cities became full of people and the richer inhabitants moved outside the city center to escape the overcrowded, dirty conditions to the suburbs with their clean, green spaces. Tenements were also constructed on the outskirts of the city in undesirable districts close to stockyards or slaughterhouses.
Again, the consequences were the increasing rates of informal settlements as a response to having shelter. Similarly in Zambia, the issue of affordability was prevalent, as there was a shortage of building materials for the core housing and sites and services