The statelessness problem lies at the center of the tensity of the internationality of rights and the jurisdiction of the sovereign states over its territories. So the stateless persons situated out of the framework of the nation-state that the international relations and the international law ease. This theses also will raise a debate, by characterizing the major challenges to guaranteeing the stateless people rights. First, it reviews the provisions relating to the stateless people status in the 1954 Convention, and the international procedures which adopted to response and address the statelessness issue. Despite it has crucial provisions to maintain the stateless status and their rights, but it has several clear
II. CAUSES OF STATELESSNESS The UNHCR identifies three main causes of statelessness. They are – incongruences in nationality laws, redrawing of borders and ethnic and racial discrimination. A. INCONGRUENCES IN NATIONALITY LAWS Citizenship laws are one of the most important laws for a nation as they determine who all will be governed and protected by the authorities in a nation thus these laws need to be complex and varied. But these complex and varied citizenship laws can also give rise to statelessness.
A stateless person is a person who is not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law. Nationality determines the political status of the individual, especially with reference to allegiance . Nationality arises either by birth or by naturalisation. Universal Declaration of Human rights under Article 15 determines the “right to nationality”. Citizenship is a status of a person recognised under the custom of a law of a state that bestows on that particular person.
This was something that I found surprising because of the historical events leading up to the ratification of the Declaration. The Jews and Armenians had no way of protecting themselves; countries that were invaded had no way of protecting themselves; people who were ruled by tyrants had no way of protecting themselves. Should the people be allowed to defend themselves from the rule of tyrannical governments, genocide/persecution, and domestic or foreign threats? I feel that this is a massive weakness because if the Declaration of Human Rights was established to give human rights, then why did it not allow the people to have the right to protect themselves. Overall, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has its strengths and weaknesses, however, one cannot deny its historical significance of creating a common standard of universal human rights.
Also agriculture would be defected since poor people often have shortage in supplies. Poverty is a huge dilemma that had a lot of innocent people suffers from its consequences; therefore a lot of organizations got built to help in raising awareness of poverty in countries to inspire people to help prevent poverty. Poverty is not just about the lack of money but it is the lack of opportunities and the lack of access to essential resources, the lack of hope. There are various causes of poverty that affects our world; one of the causes is over population, hunger, natural disasters, agricultural cycle, corrupted leader and lack of education. Over population: Over population is when there are a high ratio of people in a country with few essential resources and little space.
But what are some of the most common reasons for someone finding themselves without a home? Three of the biggest reasons why poverty happens is because of lack of education, lack of affordable housing, and the extremely high costs of medical expenses. A major cause of poverty in America is due to lack of education. Many individuals simply do not have the money to attend college, and get the degree that is needed for them to get a job. Some
The Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness provides detailed guidance in this respect. SCOPE OF MINORITY RIGHTS PROTECTION Based on the experiences of minority communities worldwide, and on the contents of the United Nations Minorities Declaration and other international standards relating to minority rights, the following can be identified as major concerns: survival and existence, promotion and protection
CONSEQUENCES OF HOMELESSNESS ON THE STATE: 1) Reduction in valuable manpower. Since some people are relegated to the background because they are homeless, this causes shortage of valuable manpower as a result of social exclusion. 2) Since people are left idle and homeless because of joblessness, they are forced to be involved in crime such as theft and pick pocketing. 3) Homelessness increases state responsibilities. This may be as a result of natural disasters like floods and landslides increase state responsibilities because the government has to provide temporary residence to victims.
It shows the sensitivity of traditional leaders to outside interference on customary laws. Given the experience of African people with colonisation, imposing decisions on discriminatory practices is inappropriate (Charter, 2003). African issues must be solved by African means. The concept of universal human rights has been criticised as a Western ideology imposed on non-Western cultures (Sjoberg, Gill and Williams, 2001). Writers acknowledge that universalism is a product of European history that denies communitarian values thus undermining African culture.
The most prominent causes of a weak or failed state are ethnic conflicts that divided the state, ineffective governments that unequally distribute resources, and conditional international intervention that was typically Eurocentric in ideology and therefore not compatible with systems within African traditional cultures; consequently, this led to the states’ inability to provide political goods to their people. I will look at the cases of the Somalia’s collapsed state and Sierra Leone’s failed state to see how the failure of these states have