Research Paper On Toxicopathology

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Toxicopathology: Toxicopathology primarily deals with the morphological or structural effects of the toxicant and the mechanism by which this structural effect is induced.Toxicopathology also referred as toxicologic pathology. A branch of pathology, which deals with understanding and identification of tissue/cell injury/lesions and diseases induced by toxic chemicals. Toxicopathology can be defined as the study of structural and functional changes in cells, tissues, and organs that are induced by toxicants (drugs, industrial and agricultural chemicals), toxins (chemicals of biological origin such as mycotoxins and phycotoxins), and physical agents (heat and radiation); the investigation of the mechanisms of action by which these changes…show more content…
3) Organochlorine - DDT, Dicofol, Heptachlor, Endosulfan, Chlordane, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, Mirex, and Pentachlorophenol.
4) Pyrethroids – Deltamethrin, Cypermethrin, Permethrin,Pyrethrin etc.
Organochlorine (OC) insecticides:
• The organochlorine insecticides are chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds.
• Widely used as contact insecticide in agriculture, malaria control programmes and as ectoparasiticide in animals.
• But, now a days use of OC insecticides has declined mainly due to persistence of residue in environment and animals.
• Organochlorine pesticides are now banned in North America and Europe, but still used in developing countries including India because:
 Inexpensive to manufacture & use
 Highly effective
 Relatively safe to humans
 Newer pesticides developed to avoid the problems with OCs (Orthophosphates and Carbamates) are more toxic to humans and more difficult to use safely.
Classification of Organochlorines:
1) Diphenyl aliphatic compounds: DDT, Methoxychlor and Dicofol.
2) Aryl hydrocarbons: BHC, Mirex and
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3) Urea poisoning:
4) Lead poisoning:
5) Organophosphates and Carbamates poisoning:
Treatment:
1) CNS depressant: Diazepam, xylazine, barbiturates and chloral hydrate.
2) Calcium borogluconate along with glucose: To prevent liver damage and neutralize effect of hyperkalemia.
3) Activated charcoal:
4) Saline purgative:
5) For dermal exposure, scrubbing with soap and water.
6) Place animal in calm and warm area.
Public health significance:
1) Residues were found in poultry feed, chicken muscle and eggs from poultry farms, in Punjab.
2) There may be high incidences of cancer and other illnesses like skin rashes, hormonal imbalance, reproductive problems, neurological derangements and muscular weakness
3) Human individuals those exposed pesticides in India’s cotton fields show decreased male fertility, increased still births, neonatal deaths and congenital birth defects such as anencephaly, cleft palate, hare lip, club foot, limb malformations, eye deformities and extra fingers or toes
Biomagnification
Biomagnification is the process whereby the tissue concentrations of a contaminant increaseas it passes up the food chain through two or more trophic

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