Human civilization evolved over a period of time. People’s life, behaviour and adoption have been changed from gathering and hunting to urbanization stage. In the beginning, people were depending on gathering and hunting then they reached the stage of cultivation of crops and this way agriculture began. At that time people did agriculture from bare hands, later on, plough developed. At that time, agriculture production is low because of lack of agricultural knowledge and technological inputs were also low which bind the whole family to work in agriculture fields.
Critical analysis of push and pull factors of migration and with Also gendered migration Throughout human history migration has been part of human life. People have migrated between and within countries. With a compression of space and time by the process of globalization migration has escalated. The inequality and uneven economic development between and within countries has forced people from developing countries to developed countries and also from rural to urban areas. Lee (1966) introduced the concepts of push and pull factors as the determinants of migration.
Due to diversity in nature of migration in India, causes of migration are bound to vary. Migration is influenced both by pattern of development (NCRL, 1991) and social structure (MOSSE, 2002).According to NCRL; the main cause of seasonal migration is uneven development. The present chapter analyses the principal causes of migration as revealed by migrants themselves as well as by their family members. Migration occurs when workers in origin areas lack suitable options for employment and there is some expectation of improvement in circumstances due to migration. After the survey it was observed that more than 60% of the population migrates due to push factors like poverty, low rural income etc.
Migration has been an integral part and a very important factor in redistributing population over time and space. India has witnessed the waves of migrants coming to the country from Central and West Asia and also from Southeast Asia. In fact, the history of India is a history of waves of migrants coming and settling one after another in different parts of the country. Similarly, large numbers of people from India too have been migrating to places in search of better opportunities specially to the countries of the Middle-East, Western Europe, America, Australia and East and South East Asia. Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently in the new location.
I believe this shows an ever-changing culture as I’m sure these statistics were different 15-20 years ago. This can be due to several reasons, such as cultural changes like the cost of living increasing. It could also be due to more jobs demanding higher education from
Worldwide, extreme poverty continues to be a rural phenomenon despite increasing urbanization. Of the world’s 1.4 billion extremely poor people, 70 percent live in rural areas, most of them depend partly, or to a large degree, on farming (IFAD, 2011). Poverty can be persistent (chronic) or transient, but transient poverty, if acute, can trap succeeding generations. Most rural community development efforts aim to relieve causes or symptoms of rural poverty; as a consequence the range of explanations on rural poverty has proliferated. On one hand rural poverty, as defined by economists, means that the consumption or income level of a person falls below a certain threshold necessary to meet basic needs.
Investment in the sector from both African governments and donor has been low. As much as governments in Africa face serious financial constraints, the amount of budget allocation given to the agricultural sector remains very low. The World Bank (2008: 7) report on agriculture notes that while 75 percent of the world’s population live in rural areas and depend largely on the agricultural sector for their livelihood, an average of only 4 percent of governments budget allocations are directed to the sector. Even official aid to the agricultural sector has remained in decline from US$2 billion to US$1 billion per year in the mid 1980s to the late 1990s (Hazzel: 2009: 13). Between 1990 and 2000, analysis of the financial budget allocation of seven Sub-Saharan Africa nations (Zambia, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Zambia, Nigeria and Malawi), revealed that the share of budget allocation to the agricultural sector decreased from 5 percent to 3.5 percent (FAO: 2006: 40).
A unique feature of the Indian scenario is that rural – rural migration continues to be predominant. In the case of unskilled and semi-skilled jobs, it is generally true that any shift from the primary to the secondary and tertiary sectors represents migration. Initially, this kind of migration is usually within the rural areas from agricultural to non-agricultural and subsequently from rural to urban areas. In some regions of India, three out of four households include a migrant. The effect of migration on individuals, households and regions add up to a significant impact on the national economy and society.
Around 3,00,400 million man days and community assets of sustainable nature were expected to be produced. In 6th the 6th plan, this programme was reviewed and continued. In the 7thplan , aspect of social forestry was introduced in NREP. Rural Landless Employment Gurantee Programme(RLEGP) was introduced in 1983 to supplement the NREP. It was 100% centrally sponsored scheme.
The interplay between mortality rates and population age structure contributes to the mortality population in Malaysia. The low birth rate in Malaysia could be due to a few number of women are in child bearing age. The entrance of male immigrants that are brought into Malaysia by the British colony during the early formation of the country has led to the number of men which outnumbered women today. According to Dhesi (2013), Malaysia is one of the attractive destination for foreigner especially foreign workers and students which has its pros and cons for the country. An increase in the labour-intensive industries in the country causes foreign workers to migrate to Malaysia which leads to an increase in the population of the