Causes And Effect Of Migration

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2.1. Effect of Migration In addition to money, migration also entails the circulation of ideas, practices, skills, identities, and social capital also circulate between sending and receiving communities. Technology flows back to source countries when migrants return; for example, they provide evidence that highly skilled migrants increasingly migrate temporarily and, therefore, bring back with them the knowledge they acquire abroad (Lacroix et al. 2016, Mayr and Peri 2008 in Douglas 2015). 2.1.1. Out-Migration Migration may have profound effects on the size, structure and growth patterns of populations. These effects may vary in time; also, for example depending on the gender of migrants, in the long run it can affect population growth rates (Stratan and Chistruga, 2012). In terms of villages and households migration in 4 (four) villages in Malinau namely; Kaliamok, Loreh, Setulang and Tanjung Nanga, the first out-migration of the village affected the population and the number of family members in the village. The population and the number of family members in the village were reduced. Secondly, out-migration affected the agriculture production of the village. Rural labor out-migration leads to a decline in agricultural cultivation and production. Rural households with labor migrants were found to have lower agricultural productivity than those without migratory workers (Mazambani 1990; Rozelle et al. 1999; Schmook and Radel 2008 in Qin 2010). Labor in farm households who
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