The most controversial aspect of R2P is its Pillar III, which relates to the use of coercive military force. The UNSC Resolution 1973 (2011), which authorized the use of force in Libya, marked the first time the UNSC invoked this Pillar
As earlier said, peacekeeping operations, are not, strictly speaking, provided for in the UN Charter which is the basis for the existence of the organization. Then it becomes important to check out where the UN has got its authority to engage in several peace keeping operations it is engaging in now. “The technique of peacekeeping is a distinctive innovation by the United Nations. The Charter does not mention it. It was discovered, like penicillin.
Peacekeeping is defined as the active maintenance of a truce between nations or communities, especially by an international military force. It is concerned with maintaining peace in a post-conflict region. There are several non-UN peacekeeping operations worldwide, including NATO’s missions in Kosovo and Afghanistan and the African Union’s missions in Somalia and the Central African Republic. In this issue, we observe the activities of the peacekeeping forces under the control of the United Nations. The efforts of the United Nations at peacekeeping, under the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) have been directed towards providing security and political support to help countries make the difficult transition from conflict to peace.
Then they would send women, children, and also the old men to concentration camps or national borders for the fourth step. Then for the final step they would execute the men of fighting age. The Serbs, who opposed the creation of a Bosnian state within their territory, began to bomb major cities
April 1992, Bosnia were declared as an independent country by the European people and the United States, but the struggle for Bosnian territorial sovereignty had not ended. This is because of the three main groups fought each other within the country which is Bosnian Muslims, Serbs, and Croats. The international community tried to help them with their war but unfortunately it is not working.. The conflict was very violent in the eastern part of Bosnia, near Serbia, between the Serbs and Bosnians. The Serbs, who opposed the creation of a Bosnian state within their territory, began to bomb major cities in Bosnia, including Sarajevo and Mostar, and also took hold of wide areas of Bosnia in order to form a Serbian territory.
The aim of most peacekeeping missions is to reach an end point and withdraw. 2.1.8 PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS ‘Peace Support Operation’ describes the “ complex, multinational, military operation in support of diplomatic efforts to achieve the settlement of armed hostilities, including the use of force in restricted circumstances”. The term ‘Peace Support Operations’ appeared in the early 1990s in response to the changes in the use and type of peacekeeping operation that occurred at the end of the Cold War. It was designed to cover the continuing part of peacekeeping as the term peacekeeping was no more appropriate as a result of activities in which forces were obliged to take part. Wilkinson sees the term as linked with the several post Cold War complex emergencies.
Pearson, now prime minister, drew attention to the critical matter of the terms of a peacekeeping mandate. He criticized the failure to include rules on combat operations and the use of force. Pearson’s high commissioner to Cyprus gave the world an eloquent outline of challenges that would have to be addressed in the future: UNFICYP must know what it is here to do… ‘peacekeeping’ and ‘normalization’ are not concepts that a soldier can be expected to interpret and carry out. The UNFICYP soldier must therefore be given a conception of peacekeeping that is intelligible, clear, and within his power to enforce… to give him more weapons or greater freedom in using them without first telling him to what achievable end the new power is to be used will merely increase the flow of blood, some of it Canadian, without helping the Cyprus situation. In making this plea, Andrew also stated a position on the issue of consent.
For instance, UN peacekeepers need the consent of all parties in order to intervene, which requires a lot of time (Mouat), and in most situations, there is no time and immediate intervention is required. The overwhelming duties of UN peacekeepers and their restrictive orders make it really difficult for UN peacekeepers to establish peace in time, and, thus, there are often a lot of casualties. On top of that, the purpose of peacekeeping, which is to keep peace, often cannot attain justice. In most of the UN peacekeeping operations there is no peace to keep, and the making of peace is required. For instance, in the Rwandan genocide, the country was extremely chaotic and there was already no peace, and since the UN peacekeepers’ orders were just to keep the peace and not restore it; about 800 000 people in Rwanda