Keywords: *Civil Society *Democracy *Democratization *Political corruption *People’s power *Globalization Introduction Between the years 1974 and 1990, more than 30 countries in Latin America, Southern and Eastern Europe, and East Asia made the transition from authoritarian to democratic regimes. Huntington (1991) divides this process of global democratic expansion into waves and, according to him, this current phase of democratization process is called the third wave. The first wave of democratization began in the 1820’s with the widening male suffrage in the United States, and continued until 1926, giving rise to some 29 democracies. Nevertheless, in 1922, the first “reverse wave” came with Mussolini’s rise to power in Italy,
1. Liberalization: Liberalization is generally considered as a political ideology. As the term itself disclose, it is the process of removing barriers and restrictions in the economy for the private and foreign sector. In the case of India it was an innovative idea. Because till that time India followed a type of policy which tends to be somewhat a closed economy.
Samuel Huntington has examined these waves, particularly the third wave and has come up with three different paths that democratization can follow, transformation, replacement, and transplacement. Through an examination of each of these pathways to democratization it can be shown that each path is unique and has its own mechanism, with each having their own potential of achieving democracy. Transformation is
Recently, democratic systems have been greatly criticized as systems which do not substantially provide political stability through governance and conflict resolutions per se. Owing to the development in changes that affect both international and domestic policies, democratic governments such as the United States of America have done more damage such as promoting global conflicts in the name of cultural homogenization sociologically referred to as monoculturalism. Daniele (0000) argues that cultural diversity is the heart of a coherent system, a system that liberal democratization
Similar to the development theorists, the followers of this theory give stress on the constructive uses of the media. The Democratization seems this group is the need for community is to participate in media. The people must express their views for themselves only and this may not through journalists or any media. The commercial, political or bureaucratic control of the media is opposed. This may exists to serve the audiences, not the interests of government.
After Park Chung Hee seized power via a military takeover, his regime placed heavy emphasis on strategies that advance economic growth. Economic growth kicked off when the inaugural Five Year Economic Development Plan that stemmed from export-oriented industrialization was successfully carried out . Under Park’s authoritarian regime, Korea experienced a vast economic growth, which eventually contributed to her democratization. Park placed a great emphasis on the argument that without economic revolution, a country would not be able to democratize . There is an observable relationship between economic development and the emergence of democracy in Korea during the 1980s.
& Cristina, 2011) argued that centralizing power and resources aided governments in the achievement of both goals Social and cultural, and trends contributed to making the state seem the natural and best form of civic society. In this case centralization may be a preferable strategy if it leads to a territorial justice or the redistribution of wealth. Despite existing successful process on decentralization in some countries, where they were fortunately with the process, on the other hand there is countries, that are strive to implement the process of decentralization and others countries decentralization may not be sustainable or applicable right now, because this process may take time to be fully operational. The design of decentralization is crucial, but very few generalizations emerge, and the ones that have been successful is said to “strengthen accountability, political skills and national integration” (Smith, 1982) , the need of some form of decentralization appears to be universal. Even the smallest states have some kind of local government with some degree of autonomy (King, 1982), in addiction to that (Duchacek, 1970) argue that small populations may geographically and ethnically require decentralization, because it brings government closer to people.
The problem with the introduction of globalization and the democratization process in African countries is that, it did not incorporate African ethos into this intervention, as a result, African culture, political system, traditional ethics were marginalized. Africa not only became a follower but remained subservient to the West for its own development. For instance, Nigeria relied on the MTN multinational corporation to boost its Gross Domestic Product. In South Africa, Eskom is an internationally owned multinational corporation that defaults with its electric supply. The hard knock is felt by domestic businesses, the local consumers, ordinary citizen who pays rates, everyone in South Africa except for Eskom’s country of origin.
The issue of privatization as gone back to late 1800s, yet it is still debated almost 200 years later. But it’s not as simple as good and bad; sometimes there’s benefits, sometimes it’s detrimental, and sometimes it makes no difference. In order to understand Privatization effects, one must look at Privatization’s history, positives, and negatives. Since its origins in America in the 1800s, Privatization has changed, but it’s basics stay the same. Privatization is the idea of transferring government services to the hands on non-government entities, including the sale of government assets, a part of the government made into a publicly traded company, or the government contracting private contractors to do work.