Africa is typically thought of as being a continent full of violence and revolution. This concept may have originated from the poor treatment of Africans by the rest of the world through colonization, forced labor in Africa, and the enslaving of Africans in other regions of the world. The danger and violence that stemmed from many countries gaining independence and experiencing political upheaval has been thwarted by peacekeeping efforts from outside agencies, like the United Nations. Africa has had a violent past, but only because of the exploitation by the Europeans, and eventually Americans. Ultimately, their ethnocentrism led to violence and the stereotype of danger in Africa.
Conflicts which appear as a mere inter-ethnic differences consisted of multifaceted variables (Lubo, 2012). He mentioned a number of ethnic conflicts that occurred after 1991 and their causes and concludes: “In spite of the creation of ethnic federalism as an endeavor to address inter-ethnic conflictual problems with Ethiopia” (ibid, 2012:66). Thus, the ethnic federal arrangement has become major source of ethnic conflicts over identity, territory and claims to power and resources. Moreover, according to Mesfin (2006), ethnic conflicts are the results of deliberate manipulation of ethnic sentiments and identities by either leader of ethnic groups or government officers who want to use conflicts as a means of securing economic and political
The rebels claimed that Darfur had suffered decades of marginalization by the Sudanese government and this was further exacerbated by religious and ethnic conflicts (UNAMID, 2015). Essentially there are webs of internal factors which has led to the regions instability, not least the division of North and South Sudan and the South Sudanese civil war, worsening the situation. For more historical background of the crisis see “When Neutrality Is a Sin: The Darfur Crisis and the Crisis of Humanitarian Intervention in Sudan” (Udombana, 2005, 1153). It should be said that part of the insolubility has to do with tribalism, which UNAMID has had to take into account when facilitating peace talks on top of their peacekeeping operation. Two initial attempts were made in response to the deteriorating conditions in Sudan.
Among others the existence of production inefficiency at farm level, lack of and inexistence of improved production technologies are the main factors that affect productivity of maize (Arega, 2003; Arega and Rashid, 2005; Jon, 2007). There are also different risk factors, which adversely affect maize yield. Weather risk and market risks are the major challenges for farmers. In addition to the above mentioned factors, low level of crop management practices, weeds, pest and diseases, erratic rainfall, erosion, low soil fertility, poor infrastructure, and post harvest crop losses are also a growing concerns for the low productivity of maize crop in Ethiopia (ECEA, 2009; Legesse et al.,
Amnesty International supported Esther’s legal team to bring the case to the Netherlands. The execution of the Ogoni nine as its called in the 1990s has cause so much bitterness and anger in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria, and the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP), led by Ken Saro-Wiwa was clearly a moment for a right to live safely in own land,This brutal campaign was mainly to denounce the giant oil company Shell. Ogoni people said shell is no longer welcome in there place because disasters caused by Shell in the environment, This campaigns was carried out in other for the government to stop Shell company from killing their people with the oil pollution. Instead the Oil Company Shell complained and persuaded the government to see MOSOP as a problem and then encouraged the government to stop Ken Saro Wiwa and MOSOP and knowing fulling well this could led to a serious crime against human right
The conflict turns into many destructions and effects, like conflict with ethnic people that led mass killing of Ngok Dinka, their cultural, citizenship, and linguistic claims, the security or violence and freedom of its citizens, and the possible wealth that they have. The 1972 Addis Ababa Agreement that ended the first civil war turned to be failure prior to rebellion that led to its Second Sudanese Civil War of 1983 to 2005 were it devastated the Abyei, and more attacks from both group increase continuously. Both group are claiming the Abyei as a part of them, one reason of it is the abundant oil resources that could be favorable to its economy. For the long term peace, it will need more years to finally solve since the actions that they create are not agreeable on both
1. INTRODUCTION One of the political concerns of the post- independent Uganda today is that ethnicity has been harmful to democracy, national unity and development (Kibanja, Kajumba, and Johnson 2011). The political conflicts in Uganda from 1964 -1966 when the then Prime Minister Milton Obote overthrew President Edward Mutesa, took an ethnic turn. The 1971 coup by General Idi Amin Dada, the 1981-86 bush wars which brought President Yoweri Museveni and later the civil wars in Northern Uganda from the late 1980s have all had the element of ethnicity as one of the driving forces (Okuku 2002). Ugandan society is plural, our human organization is based on the knowledge of different levels of family, clan, village, religion and tribe identity,
Question How was the zulu centric theory and slave theory responsible for the Mfecane? This report will discuss how Shaka used his military tactics to attack and absorbed his neighboring tribes which caused destruction that swept through the region and how slavery added pressure to this situation and was responsible for the disruptions. Sources - Great African Military Leaders: Shaka of the Zulu Nation - Every step of the way : The Journey to Freedom to South Africa by Michael Morris and John Linnegar - Julian Cobbing - The Mfecane as Alibi : Thoughts on Dithakong and Mbolompo - A picture of Shaka Zulu Evolution of sources - Source A = Great African Military Leaders: Shaka of the Zulu Nation. This is an article talking about Shaka's military
Imperialism and its associated policies are fundamentally the reason for the novels plot; Britain’s imperialistic views led them to colonize and corrupt Sri Lanka, eventually causing an atrocious civil war setting the stage for Anil’s Ghost. Civil War is what we may brand the deadly warfare, fighting and state of unrest going on in Sri Lanka, again setting the stage of the novel. Change is in essence the controlling theme and idea; whether it is societal or personal change, it is the idea of change or corruption that is reflected through colonialism, the civil war and its impacts on Sarath, Anil, and Gamini. Such an elaboration on these principle notions will allow for a successful understanding of the indicated ideas of personal and societal change as exhibited by
This then leads to mass forced migration within and between countries inadvertently reducing human security through environmental degradation, inadequate sanitation and increased health problems. There is also a lack of access to food and physical insecurity, thus giving rise to further humanitarian emergencies. The physical costs of war contribute to adverse human and social effects through damage to hospitals, schools, roads and bridges, vital in the provision of necessary services,