Causes Of Ethnic Diversity In Pakistan

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Managing Ethnic Diversity and Federalism in Pakistan I. Introduction Ethnic mobilisation and conflicts are not new phenomenon but their contemporary globe manifestation in frequency and intensity is a new development, which needs careful reflection and detailed examination. Since more than 90 percent of the nations states are heterogeneous and this heterogeneity is likely to increase as a result of global migration patterns; ethnic conflicts and the resultant political tensions are likely to become even more pervasive in the coming years. This global manifestation of ethnicity has attracted significant attention from social scientists. Since developed as well as developing countries are experiencing ethnic tensions, the problem of political instability caused by ethnic conflicts seems to be more acute in the developing world. Managing Ethnic Diversity and Federalism in Pakistan 280 Empirical studies of developing states suggest some connections between political institutions and the proliferation of ethnic mobilisation. Policy recommendations to manage ethnic diversity in these multiethnic states suggest a variety of federal and power-sharing arrangements. Lijphart (1996) maintains that democracy is possible in deeply divided societies but only if their type of democracy is consociational. Certain European countries have managed diversity through consociationalism but overall performance of such arrangements remains mixed. McGarry (2006) argues that ‘Federalism is usually

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