Birds are common victims of pollution as well as fish, turtles, and whales. “One study found that approximately 98 percent of chicks sampled, contained plastic and the quantity of plastic being ingested was increasing overtime” (“The Problem of…”). Plastic pollution is a well known source of pollution that causes harm to animals. “It is estimated that 60 percent of all seabird species have eaten pieces of plastic. With that predicted to increase to 99 percent by 2050” (“Ocean Plastic Pollution”).
How Pollution Affects the Ocean and Marine Animals Existence on Earth relies on the resources that the Ocean provides us. The Ocean has an incredibly large impact on our lives, as it makes up two thirds of our planet. In addition, oceans help trees to flourish so people may breathe; create nourishment for people and wildlife; and supply the water people drink. Oceans and their marine animals also help absorb up to 80% of the carbon from atmosphere, and without it we would die from the exposure of the carbons harmful effects on the planet. Unfortunately our oceans are suffering from many types of pollutants that are prominent in our environment.
When a larger animal consumes the hazardous animal, it affects the entire food chain (“What Is Ocean”). Plastic garbage from ships collects in the oceans, where it is eaten by some animals, causing it to choke them or to block their stomachs (Claybourne 38). Littering raises the carbon dioxide levels in the ocean. The carbon dioxide in the trash raises the temperatures of the water, which can lead to coral bleaching. Most of the trash and debris released into the oceans cannot decompose, leaving it floating in the ocean for many years.
Despite this wastewater being treated, it can still alter the ecosystem. An algal bloom is the most common effect seen, caused by excess nutrients (Katsioloudis, P., 2010). But, due to the lack of strict regulation in Caribbean waters, these environmental impacts are nearly impossible to monitor (Deidun, A. and Vella, P. 2011). However, solid and hazardous waste are easier to gauge. Much of the trash such as glass and plastic can be recycled at port, but if it is not recycled, it is incinerated and then dumped at sea, contributing to the floating plastic debris that has a serious effect on a wide range of marine organisms.
The cause of this was a nasty toxin called microcystin. Microcystin appears because of human pollution and fertilizers that flow into rivers and lakes which then lead to the ocean. Cancer-causing chemicals called PCBs and pesticides like DDT are in marine mammals ' fatty tissues and they cause serious harm. 2. Many health departments encourage people not to swim 72 hours after it rains because the coastal waters are polluted from urban runoff, leaking sewage from sewage pipes and overflowing sewer manholes.
This is common for those that reside amongst red tides because they are constantly inhaling the brevetoxins in the atmosphere. Furthermore, neurological and gastrointestinal problems occur as a result of ingesting toxic shellfish, fish, molluscs, clams, and other marine life that have become infested by the brevetoxins. This leads to the different types of poisonings caused by fish, including PSP, ASP, DSP, and NSP, each having distinct symptoms according to the toxin they were produced by. Marine life has also been impacted by red tides, specifically by the harmful toxins that HABs produce, which has lead to the deaths of manatees, bottlenose dolphins,
Fresh water bodies are highly sensitive to oil spills and is very important to the human health and to the environment. Freshwater is often used as drinking water and frequently serves as the nesting ground and food source of different fresh water organisms. All types of freshwater organisms such as mammals, aquatic birds, fishes, insects, microorganism and vegetation are vulnerable to the deadly effects of oil spill. The effects of oil spill to freshwater microorganisms, invertebrates and algae moves up to the food chain where in other species are also affected (Nomack, 2010). Humans can also be affected by oil spills because through oil spills where in we can be exposed to dangerous carcinogens which is a cancer causing agent, such as benzene that could be found in contaminated drinking water (Oil spills: Severity and Consequences to Our Ecosystem,
Thirdly, the ocean and its inhabitants are greatly affected by marine pollution. Marine pollution is the entrance of hazardous materials into the ocean. The ocean can be polluted a number of ways, including garbage, sewage, and noise. Garbage pollutes the ocean by disturbing marine life and tarnishing the marine environment, it can also damage ships. Sewage pollutes by adding dangerous chemicals to the ocean and depleting oxygen used by the animals.
Up to 1998 it was thought that the main cause of coral fatalities was not climate change, but after global coral destruction that year it was clear that local factors had a limited effect (8). Chemicals dumped in the sea affect cloudiness of the water and upset the chemical ecosystem, possibly killing detrimental coral inhabitants. Physical sea pollutants kill corals and their inhabitants physically. Land pollutants add to the carbon pools, or run off into the sea as from rainfall then end up becoming sea pollutants. Spear and dynamite fishing destroys corals physically and sometimes create imbalances in key interactions with corals and fish.
Oil spills cause many different issues to animals, food chains, and people. We need to help prevent oil spills. Oil spills have many effects on all kinds of animals. Oil destroys important features on animals. The NOAA states, “Oil destroys the insulating ability of fur-bearing mammals, such as sea otters, and the water repellency of a bird 's feathers, thus exposing these creatures to the harsh elements,” (https://oceanservice.noaa.gov).