According to the the survey report of Gulathi Istitute of Finance and Taxation, there are over 40 lakh domestic migrant labourers in Kerala from other states of India, as well as from Bangladesh and Nepal. In-migrant construction workers are risk of developing certain health disorders and sickness than workers in many industries. The work is hard physical labour often under difficult conditions like adverse weather conditions and the nature of work, low pay and poor living conditions with lack of basic amenities and separation from family. Lack of job security and lack of access to occupational health service make the situations worse. Migration has been largely associated with the exploitation of the migrant workers specially the poor, illiterate, unskilled categories.
they will first migrate to places near to them and after that to the rapidly developing urban areas; every primary phase of migration in turn creates a compensating counter phase; the locals of towns are not very fond of migrating than those of rural parts of the nation; there are a large percentage of females during migration to nearby places and in short journeys; the volume of migration continues to rise with the improvement of transport, industry and trade; and the economic reasons to migrate are prevailing among push and pull factors during
Dwivedi, R. (2012) “Migration: an overview and relevant issues”, Management Insight, Vol.8 No. 2 This article presents the overall condition of the labor class in India who are migrating in search of their earning. It discusses how the migration has affected the life of the labor class in different parts of India and still have crucial situation .Labor class is suffering so much cause of low earning.77% of the population i.e nearly 840 million Indians lives only on less then Rs.20 a day. The reason of migrations is low earning from agriculture and industrial sector. Despite of NGRES migration of skilled and unskilled employees is still growing.
Migration presents both opportunities and challenges for societies, communities and individuals. Migration alters the structure of families. While it is true that economic factors are major drivers, migration involves highly diverse groups of people, including girls, boys, women, men, and better-off as well as poorer people. Experience has shown that children are affected by migration in different ways: children are left behind by migrant parents; they are brought along with their migrating parents; and they migrate alone, independently of parents and adult guardians. Other children do not move, but are nevertheless affected because they live in communities that send or receive large numbers of migrants.
When the Industrial age came sweeping over Europe, Britain was one of many nations to have seized the opportunity. Mass migration of people into the cities where work became available in factories resulted in poor living conditions for most of Britain’s people during the nineteenth century due to overcrowding. It was estimated around seventy percent of Britain’s total population were working class people by the nineteenth century. This meant poor hours, small wages, and children were forced to work for the family to survive. Had it not been for necessity children would not have worked in conditions where they were continually ill-treated at least for one man who, in a survey conducted about the conditions of the work environment stated, “Necessity
1992:1). Transnational theory is the process as anchored in and transcending multiple countries (Levitt,2001) , transnational even affects the family members who remained in the home country as much as, if not more than those who have migrated (Mckenzie &Menjivar,2011). Deportation and transnationalism are closely linked as transnational looks at the migration process where persons tend to maintain their ties to their birth home even when they are geographically far away, as such globalization is also an example being coined as trying to achieve a ‘smaller
Labor migration refers to the movement of people across international boundaries and has emerged as one of the major issues and has affected the economic, cultural, and social aspects of most countries. Economic implications occur such as ‘brain drain’, a slang-term use to define the migration of skilled human resources for trade, education etc. An example of ‘brain drain’ would be trained professionals in healthcare is needed around the globe but higher salaries, better standards of living quality, new technologies attracts skilled professionals from developing countries to developed countries. In the UK, a third of the doctors were in fact trained overseas. This resulted in a lack of medic personnel in developing countries, thus compounding poverty in the “sending” country.
(Borjas, 1989) It is linked with global politics and global issues including economic growth, poverty and human rights. Migration can have many social and economic benefits but it also presents challenges for the host country and its citizens; sometimes even having an impact on cultural differences. The stakeholders involved in this issue include the affected countries, their economies and the Population Census organization. According to a statistical research conducted by the United Nations, 191 million people had lived outside the country of their birth in 2005,
Migration has effects on both population of the places that people leave & on the populations of those in which they settle. These effects vary with different types of migration & length of migrants stay in places. The absence of large number of either men or women may have a limited impact on the sending society in short term but if they are absent for longer periods time their absence will have significant effects on population growth rates in the medium and longer