Introduction Migration has become a common phenomenon in the present world. One of the important factor that contributes to the increased migration is globalisation. It is a universal occurrence that impacts the socio-economic conditions of a country in a fast pace. According to UNESCO, migration is the crossing of boundary of a political or administrative unit for a certain minimum amount of time. Migration also includes displacement of people, movement of refugees, uprooted people as well as economic migrants.
According to numbers of the UN there were around 154 million international migrants in the world in 1990 which has risen to an all-time high of 232 million international migrants in the year 2013. This proves that we as humans are constantly on the move. Nowadays it is argued if immigration has a positive influence on the economy in countries all over the world and that immigrants contribute something to the economy of a country. The question: should we consider immigration as a positive influence on the global economy, is raised. Immigrants and the global economy is a complex issue, there are many different opinions and the perspective of some people is just based on their anxiety.
Migration is generally defined as the movement of people from one place to another place. According to UNESCO (2016), migration is defined as the crossing of the boundary of a political or administrative unit for a certain minimum period of time. It includes the movement of refugees, displaced persons, uprooted people as well as economic migrants. Migration usually takes place within the one country, however with the occurrence of globalization and technological advancement, migrants (people who migrated) began to migrate to other countries. Usually the countries that are preferred by the migrants are developed countries where they can benefit from the giant economic growth of the country.
However, there are three main effects that follow regarding high rate of immigration into those more developed countries. The first effect that happens when there are too many migrants moving to settle down in one country is overpopulation issue. According to Nahle, by being overpopulated means that people in that country or that area consume too many limited resources, including natural objects like forest, facilities, or nonrenewable energy that would run out in the next few decades (2003). When all of the resources gone and people cannot meet their demands, the society might not survive. Moreover, immigration is the main reason why the population in developed countries like American is still growing.
People migrate from places that have few job opportunities to places with more available jobs. These are example of economic push and pull factors. A failing economy and few job opportunities are economic push factors. A successful economy with many more available job opportunities are economic pull factors. This is most commonly seen in migration to the US.
Ultimately, immigration to the United States was considered to be a part of a worldwide trend. Even until these very days, millions of immigrants gamble and go to America to find work. These immigrants came from various countries across the globe,
For instance, overpopulation and population growth place a tremendous amount of pressure on resources, which result in a chain reaction of problems as the nation grows. The third school of thought is that population growth does have any impact on economic growth. In Kenya, 71.8 percent of the total Kenyan population is in the labor force which includes all people, age 15 and older who supply labor for the production of goods and services at a specified time. It includes both the employed and unemployed. The economically active population is projected to increase from 17,825 (80.9 percent) in 2008 to 24,821 (81percent) in 2020.
The online Mirriam- Webster dictionary defines migration as the movement from one country or place to another to live or work. Carlo Zapponi made observations that, “almost 216 million people, or 3.15 percent of the world population live outside their countries”. Migration plays a major role in globalization. It is the reason for a variation in ethnicities in countries around the world. Almost every country in the world has experienced migration, whether it is immigration or emigration.
Migration has always been driven by differences in economic opportunity among countries and has often been concentrated in areas marked by large differences of income per capita. For example, in many regions around the world the economically strong countries have been the ones attracting migrants from relatively poor neighbours and near neighbours. This has also been the case for South Africa, as a relatively wealthier country in the South African region, which has attracted migrants from their neighbours. According to the Centre for Development and Enterprise (2011): Though the long-term benefits of migration for migrants and their countries of destination are well established, managing the social, economic and political stresses that arise
Unemployment is a very important issue for every country, especially developing country with a remarkable population. Country with high unemployment specifies that the country’s labor resource is not fully utilized. There are three types of unemployment which are frictional, structural and cyclical (demand deficient unemployment). In Malaysia, the unemployment rate measures the number of people actively looking for job as a percentage of the labor force. Malaysia’s unemployment is on the growth, with the seasonally familiar unemployment rate at 3.4% in May related with 3% in April and 3% a year ago.