Introduction: People have been migrating for many contrasting causes. These causes can be distinguished between environmental, social, economic and political causes. Environmental causes would be that people migrate because of natural catastrophes and disasters such as tsunamis and the likes. Social migration means that people move to a specific place because of their own preferences. Economic causes imply that people are migrating to find employments or to follow a precise way for their career.
In the view of push and pull migration theory, the decision of migrate is determined by the factors to associate with the area of origin, are of destination and supply-push factors in the origin area and the network factors that link origin and destination. Lee also acknowledged that migration is basically because of individual migrant’s characteristics because people respond in various forms to the plus and minus factors of the origin and destination places and have different abilities for the adaptation (Hass H. D, 2008). These are some general push and pull factors of Myanmar cross border workers for the reason to migrate into the
Migration policies affect the economic incorporation of immigrants in three main ways. First, migration policy can affect the economic integration of immigrants through the distribution of the various visa types by means of which immigrants enter the host country. Some countries use point-based systems to select immigrants on the basis of human capital or skills, and others use quota systems to recruit less skilled workers for specific jobs or economic sectors. Both systems imply some level of selectivity of the immigrant workforce. However, the admission of migrants via ‘noneconomic’ immigration grounds (mainly family reunification, refugees and students) also shapes the migrant workforce, as these categories of immigrants are generally entitled
Human migration comprehends the movements of persons or families from one place to another with the intention of settling temporarily or permanently in a destination place. This definition is enormously wide, large and it can be considered as part of the natural human activity, and as a necessity of the society’s evolution itself. However, the notion drags into consideration the political impact and consequences of the movement process of people or communities from one place to another, not only from the migrant insight but also from the host country’s observation. For the matter of this research, migration would be understood and limited to the definition of International Migration, which also includes different types of migration according to the reasons why the emigration may occur. For the purposes of this research, migration would be defined based on the clarity of the German office of Migration and Refugees (Bundesamt für Migration un Flüchtlinge) which identifies that this exodus occurs when one person moves from his or her usual place of residence and clarifies that international migration occurs when this migration happens across national boundaries (Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge, 2014, p. 10).
Migration also includes displacement of people, movement of refugees, uprooted people as well as economic migrants. Migration can be classified into two simplest types: External Migration and Internal Migration. External migration is the process of movement across international border while, internal migration is the movement of people between or within the state or regions. According to International Organization for Migration, there were about 232 million people living outside their native countries in 2013. The Unites States of America, The Russian Federation, Germany, Saudi Arabia, U.A.E, the U.K and France together constitute over 51% of total migrants in the world.
These policies are formulated by countries which are in the same geographical territories. Regional blocs such as the European Union (EU) and Southern African Development Community (SADC) have formulated migration policies which regulate the movement of people within their member countries. According to SADC website “The immigration services of SADC are engaged in collective planning aimed at strengthening the control and facilitation of the movement of persons in the region to benefit development” (www.sadc.int, para. 1 ). The website goes on to mention that “The overall objective of the Draft Protocol on the Facilitation of Movement of Persons is to “develop policies aimed at the progressive elimination of obstacles to the movement of persons of the Region generally into and within the territories of State Parties.” Specific objectives aim for every citizen to have entry (with some limitations) without a visa into another State, to seek permanent and temporary residence in other States, and to establish themselves with employment in another State”, (www.sadc.int, para.
Push factors are reasons to leave a country. Pull factors are reasons to go to a certain country. Push and pull factors can be economic, cultural, or environmental. Typically they are economic, but cultural and environmental reasons are important too. People migrate from places that have few job opportunities to places with more available jobs.
The United Nations defines Migration as movement of a person or a group of persons either across on international border or within a state. It includes migration of refugees, displaced persons, economic migrations and persons moving from other purpose including family reunification etc. Migrant workers include any people working outside of their home country. The
Migration can be defined as the process of going from one country, region or place of residence to settle in another. The duration of this new settlement varies, but for the purposes of this paper the focus is on individuals who relocate either semi-permanently or permanently to another country. People who migrate for economic or educational reasons may move singly and at a later date be joined by their families, whereas people who move due to political reasons may move in mass but with or without their families. Cultural Identity is a feeling of belonging to, as part of the self-conception and self-perception to ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, locality and any kind of social group that have its own distinct culture. Culture is an important factor in shaping identity.
These include the following (Cohen, 2008:17). Firstly, it’s the movement from an original place of birth which can traumatically deduce one at the initial stage. Secondly, movement from ones place of origin in search of a job that has a better wage compared with thee wage been paid in ones homeland. Thirdly, is the memory and myth about home away from home? Additional feature is the ideology of the ancestral home, a continues connection with family or a return movement back to ones homeland, consciously holding on to ethnic belief, norms, customs over a long period of time, a troubled relationship with the country in which the migrant is been hosted, a sense of co-responsibility with members of the same ethnic group who also are migrant in other countries and finally the possibility of a distinctive creative life the host countries tends to tolerate