Overcrowding Prisons Prisons are overcrowded throughout the nation. The number of incarceration is rapidly increasing. Innocent prisoners are taking up space, and money is crucial. Prisoners are competing and struggling for a living. Therefore our two choices are to release the prisoners, or overcrowd them into jail.
Drug abuse can rewire brain connections, decrease synapse activity and cause addiction. The American Psychiatric Association says that addiction is a complex condition, and a brain disease that is manifested by compulsive substance use despite harmful consequence. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) found that 21.5 million American adults (aged 12 and older) battled a substance use disorder in 2014. Addiction to drugs has been a growing issue in America, and is causing jails to become overcrowded. The Bureau of Justice Statistics found that more than half of federal prisoners were incarcerated for drug crimes in 2010.
“Between 2007 and 2017 the leading contributing causes of wrongful conviction in the death row exonerations were official misconduct (82.4%), perjury or false accusations (76.5%), false or misleading forensic evidence (32.4%), inadequate legal defense (23.5%), false or fabricated confession (17.6%), and mistaken eyewitness identification (11.8%)” (“Causes of Wrongful…”). A disadvantage to life in prison is that more prisons need to be built. The more prisoners that commit crimes harsh enough to be sentenced to life in prison, the more room they will need for the prisoners. A third disadvantage of life in
Adaptation is when an inmate is shaped and acclimated by the institutional environment. “For some Inmates, incarceration is so stark and psychologically painful that it represents a form of traumatic stress severe enough to produce PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder) reactions once released.”-Craig Haney (University of California, Santa Cruz). Prisons and jails can negatively affect inmates mentally. Suicide is the number one cause of death among inmates in local jails and top 5 for the state prisons.-Alana Horowitz. Some inmates are so hurt emotionally and cave under the pressures they face every day.
There is a huge problem of heavy drug usage in the world today. These drugs become addictive at the first use. They consume the lives of millions. Treatment from these drugs is painful mentally and physically. There are countless risks when it comes to the usage of these drugs.
According to (Schmalleger & Smykia, 2015, p. 241), “For the nation’s one-half million correctional employees and thousands of daily visitors to prisons and jails, good health care also reduces their risk of becoming infected from inmates with communicable diseases.” I definitely point out a great reason on why the prison health care programs shouldn’t be abolished. “Jail and prison inmates experience disproportionately high levels of both physical and mental symptomatology, including infectious diseases,1-3 chronic conditions,3,4 severe psychological disorders,5 and mild psychological symptomatology” (Lindquist & Lindquist, 1999). We want to run a safe environment while ensuring we maintain good health within the prison walls. Staff health and safety is just as important as a prisoner’s. Also, those with mental health issues deserve treatment as it will assist with their behavior and how they function.
Prisoners can be sent to Special Housing Units for a wide variety of reasons, among those being minor and non-violent transgressions. Consequently, solitary confinement is experienced by a high percentage of prisoners, including those that are especially susceptible to extreme isolation like juveniles, the elderly, and people with mental illnesses or substance abuse problems. Statement of the Problem During the past few years, the numbers of supermax prisons have increased in many countries, especially in North America. Supermax prisons are said to be a solution to keep the most dangerous and violent prisoners that pose a threat to other individuals including inmates and the society that they live in. However, it has posed a threat to the inmates’ sanity, which can cause negative mental effects such as self-harm, anxiety, and irrational anger.
For example, crack increased the risk of contracting STDS. Crack made people engage in “high-risk sexual behaviors”. It makes sense that crack has this effect on people as crack impairs a person’s judgement. Studies showed that the number of HIV infections was 2.4 times higher for smokers than for non-smokers. Once a person has HIVs, it was incurable and sometimes led to death.
The blunt facts of mass incarceration for criminal offenders in United are very well known as they house the world’s largest prison population (Raphael & Stoll 2011). As of March 2010, the incarceration population in United States are as high as 2.3 million, making them the world leader in incarcerating its citizens. The jurisdiction believes that prison has an important role to play in protecting the community against offenders and in punishing them for their crime (Foucault, 2009). However, research and evidence have shown that the use of imprisonment has many disadvantages. The rate of growth in criminal justice system has slowed in recent years and the call for prison reforms have largely fallen on deaf ears (Raphael & Stoll, 2011).
Its consequences can prevent prisons from fulfilling their functions as well (penalreform.org). For example, it can increase sickness among the inmates and prison guards. It can also increase the difficulties for the guards to control the extra amount of inmates. California prisons were ordered by district court panel to release or transfer more than 33,000 inmates due to overcrowding in 2011 (CNN.com). This decision was made by the United States Supreme Court which said that the conditions in the overcrowded prisons are so overwhelming that unusual punishment must be held.
Along with rehabilitation for drug offenders, there is also a need for proper rehabilitation of mentally ill patients and prisoners to keep them from relapsing and ending up back in the system. Brooks states in his article that in the early 70s, a large majority of people were released from mental institutions. This caused an issue because a lot of these inmates released were not mentally
Prison cells have changed in the past couple years to withstand rust or mold from disturbing or breaking the iron bars. The second most important improvement was the treatment of inmates/prisoners. The prisoners have changed a lot in the past century or so because they have developed a new way for entertainment or pleasure. That was sexual humiliation of what the prisoners did to each other. Other than pleasure they have gotten more dangerous because in prison, criminals have records that have skulls or stars that show how dangerous they are.
In addition to the negative purpose of a retributive punishment system, the current prison conditions help explain why this model is severely damaging to convicts. The United States prison condition is plagued with brutal violence, increased rate of sexual abuse, mistreatment of convicts, and overcrowding of prisons at an alarming rate. This coincides with the retributive-model, considering this dogma fails to view these criminal offenders as socially ill individuals and leading to extensive imprisonment periods. In 2005, a research was conducted about the current prison condition in the U.S. Results showed that “the population of convicts has risen by nearly 4x in the last 20 years, accumulating close to 2 million convicts” (Jeffrey Smith,
The Untied States has the highest rated of adult incarceration about 2.2 million in jail or in prison. About half of those inmates are mentally ill; the cause of this problem may me a result of deinstitutionalization of the state 's mental health system. In other words, the state has put the mentally ill humans in a correctional facility as they were in an asylum and the prisons holds more mentally ill humans than a state hospital nationwide. These offenders are mistreated inside of jails and prison, believes it or not it has been proven. Most of these individual have different illness, which consist of psychotic illness, depression, personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, organic disorders and there’s many more illnesses and disorders.
Most people in the United States each year go the prison and keep there for non-violent crime, such as drug related offenses. This issue has affected many family’s life for many years and caused the prisoners to deprive from many of their rights. Lacking the appropriate policies for keeping drug related offenses in prison has been a public health crisis and created a new addiction, like penchant for locking people up in prison. The author in this article “prison addiction: why mass incarceration policies must change.” discusses about lacking the appropriate policies for incarceration for non-violent drug related offenses. In this regard, he points that this issue has been part of public health crisis, and many families live in poverty with