Pollution In Rivers

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Rivers serve as a daily part in humans since ancient times. As industrialization from humans increase, freshwater bodies receive more and different kinds of pollution. Rivers are highly vulnerable to pollution because it is on the receiving end of drainage systems of any catchment area (Bredenhand).
As pollution is introduced in water bodies, physical, chemical, and biological changes occur. Continuous increase of urban communities beside water bodies such as rivers results in shortage of clean water supply. Improper waste disposal and lack of sanitation may result to water-borne diseases that were being carried by infectious pathogens such as a coliform bacterium (E.coli) from domestic effluents is one of examples of pollution. Pollution
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Acid rain results from rain falling through polluted air that contains many poisonous gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), oxide of nitrogen (NOX) etc. that react with rainwater to form acids. It possibly releases harmful substances when reaching the ground such as heavy metals that could washed into water bodies (Hudda, S.). Industrial wastes released into water are mixtures of chemicals that are difficult to clean up (Hudda, S.). Agricultural pollution is considered the major pollution of water (Mihov). Oil pollution results from pouring things like used car oil and paint into drains. Other sources of pollution include phosphorus from household wastewater and sewage that also degrade the presence of oxygen in rivers, disposal of solid waste into rivers, improper waste disposal, animals washing and wallowing in the river, and dumping human remains that may welcome infectious diseases (Hudda, S.) Human activities such as agriculture produce the main source of nutrient pollutants like fertilizer and sewage systems are considered as one of the main pollutants of freshwater bodies. (Mihov, S. WWF) Toxic substances such as heavy metals greatly affect the chemical properties of water (Mihov). Contamination from industrial sources is also a common source of…show more content…
Pollution greatly affects their diversity as they responded to different environmental conditions (Sharma, M.P). They are affected by the physical, chemical, and biological conditions of the stream (US EPA). They have a large number of species that respond to a variety of environmental conditions (Sharma, M.P). Different taxa show varying degrees of sensitivity to pollution and other impacts (Boothroyd & Stark 2000). There are species that can survive to polluted waters, the pollution tolerant organisms like the midge larva, pouch snails, and rat-tailed maggots. And there are species that cannot survive to pollution, which are the pollution intolerant such as the EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera). These the major groups of macroinverterbrates that are common in high-quality streams. Many aquatic insect species are intolerant of pollutants and will not be found in polluted waters. The greater the pollution, the lower the species richness expected, as only a few species are pollutant tolerant7. Aquatic macroinvertebrates are group into pollution tolerant or those that survive in any environmental condition and pollution intolerant6. The more diverse these organism in a stream, then the healthier the stream is.
They have a limited mobility and they live on substrate, which means they cannot easily escape pollution.

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