In his essay “Arrested Development: The Conservative Case Against Racial Profiling” published in the New Republic on September 10, 2001, professor James Forman Jr. illustrates his disagreement with racial profiling. Forman Jr. is a professor at Yale Law School. He teaches Constitutional Law and seminars on race and the criminal justice system. In his piece, Forman primary goal is to create understanding about the effectiveness of racial profiling and how this affects the black community especially youths. Forman achieves this by appealing to a liberal audience.
An article written by Vox in 2018 probed the ‘criminalization of blackness’ and divulged into the unlawful implementation of racial profiling due to the suspicions ethnic minorities are met with in regard to the law. An exhibit of this can be seen in a particular instance taking place in Minnesota whereby four black teenagers were detained by police officers, with one drawing his weapon after a woman had called claiming the teenagers had used weapons to assault a white man. This later proved to be false (P.R. Lockhart, 2018). From this instance alone, it is unequivocal the phrase ‘innocent until proven guilty’; ironically stemming from the U.S. constitution, does not apply in the case of minority groups, furthermore, there is compelling data to suggest that black people are arrested disproportionately. In 2019-2020 there were six stops of white people per 1,000 which increased to eight in 2020-2021 in comparison to this black people were stopped and searched at 54 stops per 1,000 people (Gov.uk, 2022).
This article brought many points into light that many other articles were too sacred to bring up or simply did not want to bring up because the evidence went against their claim. This article talked about how racial profiling is often times misunderstood. To argue his point, he talks about how crime is never evenly distributed in cities and many times the places where there is the most crime is a part of town that lives in poverty. Often times this also means these parts of town are highly diverse. Policemen then, doing their job, watch these parts of town because of the high crime.
To summarize the article “Racial Profiling is Morally Wrong and Based on False Assumptions”, by James A. Kowalski, he argues that racial profiling is by no means effective, or good. It solves no problems, and causes people to fear law enforcement. Racial profiling is when an individual is suspected of a crime by law enforcement because of their race, ethnicity, religion, or national origin. For example, “all blacks are gang members”. In addition to Kowalski’s arguments, he references the Zimmerman case from 2012 as an example of racial profiling gone wrong.
Throughout history, the failure of the government to protect black people from ruthless enforcement officers, forced blacks to act in their own interests. During the 1930s, the National Negro Congress organized massive rallies against police brutality, the Black Panther was created to stem the tide of police abuse, and in the 1970s the Congress of African Peoples sponsored the “Stop Killer Cops” Campaigns (Fitzgerald, 2007). The list goes on and on of groups and campaigns that African Americans formed to protect themselves from white supremacy and most importantly police brutality. Although some observers claim that racial profiling doesn’t exist, there are an abundance of stories and statistics that document the
"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized". The 4th amendment was made based on the Founding Fathers ' experience with the Kings agents and the all purpose writ of assistances that they used abusively. Without the 4th amendment, we would be at the mercy of the police because they could come into our household, search anything and take whatever they want. "A reasonable expatiation of privacy" the 4th amendment secures the protection of the
Ever since the 1960 's the justice system has been under construction because of the innovative precedents. There has been a constant debate about the justification of the people and how police conduct has an impact. the framework of the fourth amendment will give a better understanding on how the fourth amendment is used. "The right of the people to be secure in their persons, house, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall be issue, but apon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or thing to be seized (U.S Const,. amend IV).
The Fourth Amendment states, "The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized" (Administrative Office, n.d.) The key to this is unreasonable searches and seizures. I am using a government-owned device and if my employer believes I have something to hide that could be hurtful or harmful, he should be allowed to search my device without waiting for a warrant. The only time it would be infringing on my rights protected by the Fourth Amendment is if he is being unreasonable and only checking whenever he felt like being nosey.
Danielle Johnson APMA 3 Topic: Racial Profiling Thesis Statement: Because of recent events in America including September 11th attacks, the influx of immigration, and recent racial tension with African Americans and police officers, there has been an increase in racial profiling. Racial profiling is a degrading practice that is a violation against human rights guaranteed by the United States Constitution, thus why the United states government should create effective guidelines restricting law enforcement officers from practicing racial profiling.
In conclusion, the idea of racial profiling and the issues on racism in today’s society calls attention to sustain peace and ethnic equality within communities all across the nation and around the world. It is important to acknowledge that the main solution to change the issues on racial profiling and racism is among the duties of government authorities, law enforcement officials, and the people of a nation. Everyone, of any race, ethnicity, nationality, religion, or authority needs to understand that our voices and actions are capable of fixing the issues of racial injustice into a more fair environment to all people of color. Therefore, it is up to our knowledge and actions to help people understand that the solution to obtain racial equality
Racial Profiling in America Racial profiling is defined as refers to the targeting of particular individuals by law enforcement authorities based not their behavior, but rather their personal characteristics ( The Leadership conference) . This is another mechanism for racial discrimination backed by the law. According to the The Leadership conference, racial discrimination is not solely on race, but based on religion, ethnicity and national origin.
Throughout history, disputes and tensions between law enforcement officials and communities of minorities have endured hostility and violence between each other. Racial profiling has become a “hot topic” for researchers as well as for politicians and by now it is likely that most citizens are at least aware of the common accusations of racial bias pitted against law enforcement (Cochran & Warren, 2013). Communities of color are being discriminated against and racially profiled by white police officers for any suspicion of criminal activities. It has been widely assumed by policy makers and citizens alike that allegations of racial profiling are mostly associated with the policing practices of white officers and their treatment of racial and ethnic minorities (Cochran & Warren, 2013). Also, individuals of minority descent will certainly recognize that they are being racially profiled during a stop that is being conducted by a white police officer.
The performance of a police officer is always under a microscope especially when it comes to dealing with people from another race. There is also the idea that police officers use racial profiling to conduct and solve many of the crimes that are happening in their neighborhood. The racial profiling aspect is very sensitive and it can be difficult to determine if in reality it is happening because this is coming from someone else 's perception. According to Wiener, R., et al (2007), profiling is used by law enforcement officer to help them find needles in haystacks - to identify the few bad guys hiding in plain view among the mass of ordinary people (pg. 36).
300359810 Mrs. Fahey ERWC 12-Period 2 14 September 2015 Racial Profiling Racial discrimination is becoming a major problem in today 's society. Our nation is facing problems based on the discrimination on race, ethnicity, religion or national origin. Racial profiling is a clear violation of the civil rights of the United States.