Causes Of Rural Urban Migration

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Internal migration refers to the process of population redistribution within the national boundary of a country. Such movements often involve significant population shift even though the migrants do not cross any international boundary. Evidences indicate a continuous shift of population within a country as a response to a variety of social, economic and demographic factors in both developed and less developed parts of the world. Apart from specific migration waves in different countries, the processes of industrialization and urbanization have provoked significant shift of people from rural to urban areas. In the less developed parts of the world, another factor that has contributed to this rural-urban migration is the gap in the levels of…show more content…
The cities of Mumbai, Delhi, and Kolkata are all among the world’s top ten most populous urban areas, and India has 25 of the 100 fastest-growing cities worldwide. A significant source of this growth is rural-to-urban migration, as an increasing number of people do not find sufficient economic opportunities in rural areas and move instead to towns and cities. Provisional 2011 census data show that for the first time, India’s urban population has grown faster than its rural population since the last census. Thirty-one percent of India’s population is now classified as urban, up from almost 28 percent in 2001. In 2007-08, the National Sample Survey measured the migration rate (the proportion of migrants in the population) in urban areas at 35 percent. In addition to migration, natural population increase and the inclusion in census data of newly-defined urban areas also account for some of this urban…show more content…
Significant numbers of people from drought-prone regions—including areas of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Maharashtra—migrate seasonally to work in brick making, construction, tile factories, and crop-cutting operations. According to one study, 90 percent of laborers in the construction industry are internal migrants. Circular migrants are also attracted by agricultural work, such as the rice harvest season in West Bengal and the sugar cane harvest in Gujarat. Finally, while longer-term migration flows tend to be male-dominated, circular or seasonal flows in India—which are most prevalent among the poorest and tribal populations—tend to have a more even balance of men and women. Types of Internal Migration in India • Labor migration flows include permanent, semi-permanent, and seasonal or circular migrants. Much of the available data polls migrants in the permanent and semi-permanent categories, and considerably less large-scale statistical data are available on the numbers. • Semi-permanent migrants are those who are likely to have precarious jobs in their destination areas, or lack the resources to make a permanent move. While they may reside in their destination cities for years or decades, they likely have homes and

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