In the 1901 census, only 10.8 per cent of the total popu¬lation (or 25.6 million out of 238 million) lived in cities. In 1991, this had gone up to 25.73 per cent; and by 2001, nearly 35 per cent (or about 350 million of the estimated one billion populations) will be urban residents. • This means that in coming two years, there will be 37 cities with a popu¬lation between one and ten million. Mumbai, Delhi and Calcutta will have more than 14 million people each. One factor which has contributed relatively much to the increase in urban population is industrialization.
Cross-country differences in migration regimes may contribute to explain differences in immigrant labor market outcomes across EU countries. Non-EU immigrants have significantly worse economic outcomes than the majority population in most EU countries. Migration policies are the set of rules governing the admission to the country and access to the labor market of non-national workers, influencing the size and attributes of the migrant workforce relative to the jobs in demand in the economy, and affecting the migrant experience in the host labor market by regulating access to the labor market of the different categories of non-national workers. Migration policy-making in Europe remains largely dominated by national policy frameworks (EU countries have been reluctant in giving up their national sovereignty in the governance of labor migration and national policy approaches).  Immigration is driven by strong social and economic forces  that are bound to compete with state regulation.
In the study, push factors are poverty, unemployment and natural calamity, while better opportunity, high wage, relatives or friends stay since long time are the indicators of pull factors. Migration is a natural process that often happens depending on the socio-economic, demographic, cultural, political and environmental factors related to the migrant people. All of the factors of migration are included in two broad classifications as Push and Pull factors. Push factors are those that compel a person, due to different reasons, to leave place of origin and to go to some other place For instance, lack of work opportunities, unemployment and underdevelopment, poor economic condition, lack of opportunities, exhaustion of natural resources and natural calamities. On the other hand, pull factors indicate the factors which attract migrant to an area (area of destination), like, employment and higher education opportunities, higher wages facilities, better working
This has led to a decline in the availability of workforce in Kerala especially in unskilled jobs. Traditionally, the largest number of migrant workers in Kerala used to come from Tamil Nadu. But as in2015, 75% of the migrant workers are come from 5 states namely West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Uttar Pradesh and Odisha. 60% of them work in construction sector. According to the the survey report of Gulathi Istitute of Finance and Taxation, there are over 40 lakh domestic migrant labourers in Kerala from other states of India, as well as from Bangladesh and Nepal.
The rate of urban growth in Africa is very alarming and the continent is said to have the highest rate of urbanization globally, at 4.4% per year (Gwebu, 2004)[ ]. In the year 2000, owning to the combined effects of rural-urban migration and rapid rates of natural increase, 38% of the continent’s population lived in urban areas and the proportion was expected to increase to 47% by 2015 (Thuo, 2010). Urbanization in Ghana is not different from other African countries. In 2000, 43.8% of the population constituted urban dwellers with a growth rate of 2.6% per annum as against 23.1% in 1960 (GSS, 2000)[ ]. Though the rate of urbanization in Africa is projected to rise to over 50% by the year 2030, Ghana has already achieved this with 51.5% of its population already living in urban areas (United Nations, 2008)[ ].
Do The Disadvantages Of Urbanization Outweigh The Benefits Of It? Introduction Urbanization refers to the increase in trend of people moving from rural or under developed areas to more developed areas. This trend has experienced a dramatic rise in the past few decades. The report issued by the United Nations in 2015 supports this claim by suggesting that globally, more people are moving towards urban areas. In 1950, 30 percent of the world’s population was residing in urban areas while in 2014, 54 percent of the world’s population was urban, and by 2050, 66 per cent of the world’s population is projected to be urban.
Nerima ward in Tokyo had about 53% of urban farmers in 2002 and most of them were the elderly. In that same year there was also an increase in the percentage of commercial farm households from 82% in 1996 to 90% in 2002 (Kunio, n.d). In Fuchu city (Tokyo Metropolitan area) and the suburban areas in Osaka-Kobe, 80% of the population is involved in small household farming. For many years urban farming has been practiced in China, as the world population continues to increase cities such as Beijing and Shanghai have shown resilience through UA. Peri urban agriculture plays a crucial role in the supply of fresh food to Beijing citizens.
But stands among the rapidly urbanizing countries in the developing world. Vast number of people are leaving the rural area and joining the urban people every day. The reason for exodus to urban areas widely varies from place to place. But most studies indicate the economic motives as the major driving force behind the recent vary vast urbanization phenomena in Ethiopia. For example chronic lack of rural employment opportunities, rapidly increasing population pressure and land fragmentation, were the major forces behind the high rural-urban migration in Ethiopia.
This viewpoint of migration is identified as the, “new economics of migration (NELM)”. The supporters of the NELM models argue that rural-urban migration is a source of varying income in the LDCs. Therefore the choice to place some members of the household in the urban labor market is a household decision and not an individual decision. (Stark 1978, Stark 1982) The models having talked about till now cover almost all aspects of the rural-urban migration but not even a single one of them considers those people who leave their home for survival because of civil conflicts, violence, wars or any other natural or manmade hazards. (Ibanez and Velez 2008) Nonetheless, there are other research studies which believe that forced migration is not something dissimilar from the conventional migration decisions and therefore economic and social factors are still considered when dealing with the forced.
Among the world’s domestic workers, millions have migrated from their homes to other countries seeking employment. Despite its prevalence which stems out of necessity, this line of work remains undervalued and insufficiently regulated by law. Consequently, domestic workers