In the period from the 1641 until 1692, Ireland was plagued with continuous political conflict, rebellions, violence and civil warfare. This period of Irish history was driven by violence as it was prevalent throughout the whole country and it is the defining theme of that fifty-year span. What sparked off the violence, that prevailed for just over half a century, was the 1641 Rebellion which began because of fear of civil war on both sides of the religious divide. Oliver Cromwell was sent to Ireland to crush the rebellion and this lead to harsh and drastic changes both in Ireland and in England. In England these changes were political, and in Ireland the changes affected all aspects, including increased unrest. Although there was a …show more content…
The Bishop Wars took place in Scotland and England, when Charles I tried to convert Scotland from Presbyterianism to Anglicanism. After invading Scotland twice, Charles I and English troops were defeated by the Scottish. This military blunder had effects in Ireland, where the English feared a Catholic revolt against the Crown and in early 1641 there were proposals to invade Ireland to subdue Catholicism in case an Irish Catholic army was planning to land in Scotland or England. The other factor that lead up to the 1641 Rebellion were the Plantations. The Plantations had left thousands of Irish without land or work, including clan leaders, and this left many Irish Catholics resentful towards the English crown. The planners of the rebellion were Irish landowners that included Gaelic Irish and Old English. In examining the depositions taken at the time, the issues surrounding land is an integral determinant for the outbreak of …show more content…
The Catholics formed their own government called the Catholic Confederation, and had support from clergy and most of the Irish Catholics throughout Ireland. Upper class Catholics were less supportive in fear of losing their lands. As time went by the Confederation gained and lost holdings throughout the country and by 1649 on Dublin was left in their grasp. When the English Civil War ended with the execution of Charles I, English troops could set their sights on Ireland. Cromwell landed in Ireland in 1649 and quickly took the towns of Drogheda and Wexford through massacre. Because of the barbarism employed by Cromwell’s men, towns surrendered which made Cromwell’s conquest a much easier feat. Small troops of guerilla’s set up in places like the Wicklow mountains, soley to attack Cromwell’s Parliamentairans. This then led to famine and a bubonic plague. The guerilla warfare eventually ended in late 1652, when Parliamentarians signed an agreement that allowed the Irish to serve in foreign
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysShow More
The natives were now inferior to the settlers. English settlers also acted on violence to redefine Irish values and customs. English settlers burned and destroyed villages as a means to relocate them on reservations. It was said Sir Humphrey Gilbert promoted terror throughout Ireland by beheading all of his victims. In the end, Ireland was left an empty void for English settlers to claim and
Settlers in the 18th century American frontier would at times resort to violent protests to express their political and social distress as a result, political, social, and economic reform followed. America had varying political and social opinions in relation to individual groups and peoples within society. The individuals and groups, at times, would have differing opinions than what was legislated or believed overall as a country. The dissent of opinions and ideas lead to acts of aggression against established laws and ordinance.
AP European History Chapter Breakdown: Chapter 11 Main overview: The Protestant reformation took place during a time of conflict between the new nation-states of Europe, which was caused by conformity within their areas. As Switzerland’s cantons, or subdivisions began dividing, civil wars began erupting. They were caused by the conflicts between the Catholic and Protestant churches.
In 1786, Daniel Shays, like other farmers, was with his inability to pay high debts. So, out of anger, formed a group of farmers who were frustrated too. The national government didn’t have a right or means to raise any army, so the governor of Massachusett formed an army on his own. New laws were drafted, which offered welcome relief to all of the debtors. But in the end, the rebellion helped highlight issues with the articles of confederation.
Shayś Rebellious Ways Shay and his followers were a group of farmers out to no good. After the American revolution, the US was without money, so they raised taxes. Farmers who couldn 't pay were thrown in jail so a rebellion started. Shay and about 1,500 farmers stole weapons and fought. Some people say that the people in Shay 's Rebellion were freedom fighters, nevertheless Shay and his followers were rebels because they protested violently, caused chaos in the country, and were criminals.
After the Articles of Confederation was passed, the national government was weak and began to introduce new taxes to the Nation. Massachusetts began to impose unfair taxes on farmers, because farmers were not cooperative to these new taxes the court seized their property and some farmers were even sent to jail. Then 1,000 armed men Shay and his army marched where all the states money and power was, Boston. After the rebellion some rebels were caught, tried, and hung. Others such as Shay were
In the year 1517, Martin Luther started his protestant revolt. This revolt caused many Catholics to turn away from their faith in Germany, Switzerland, England, and later all around the world. This divided the people of Europe, causing many wars between states and enmities between previous friends. In England, King Henry VIII divorced and remarried, causing the pope to publicly reprimand him.
I. England and the New World A. Unifying the English Nation 1. England experienced religious conflict between Catholics, Protestants, and Anglicans. a. Henry VIII started the Church of England and he and his successors killed hundreds of Catholics.
Shay’s rebellion was a crisis happened in 1780s at rural areas of central and western Massachusetts. At that time, many farmers were bonded to high debt when they started new farm, because of the local government did not handle the economic crisis well, there was no pro-debtor laws (i.e. forgiving debt and print more paper money). They already sent letters to the elected leaders, however, they only getting ignored by the state government, also the national government could not do anything because they had no power under the Articles of Confederation, which had many weaknesses, such as; (1) The national government did not have power to tax, (2) Congress did not have power to forces the states to obey the laws, (3) There was no system of national courts, (4) Congress could declare war and raise army, however it could not force the state
The question, “Why the fighting started?” isn’t as complicated for King Philips War, as it is when examining Bacon’s Rebellion. Bacon’s rebellion was a result of settlers in the backcountry become upset about the weak efforts of the aristocrats in the East to protect them from Indian attacks. Bacon led the backcountry in attacking the Indians over some land, defying the government of Virginia, which caused fighting to begin not only against the Indians, but also against the Governor and the settlers in Jamestown. In comparison, King Phillip’s war began strictly as the Indians fought to defend their threatened way of life as the English quickly populated New England and destroyed forests. Although Bacon’s rebellion began over more diverse issues, both the rebellion and King Phillips war began over the root issue of English greed and taking
Unlike the English Revolution, religion was not one of the major causes of the American Revolution. However religion did play a major role leading up to and all throughout the war. The road to war began with the French and Indian War from 1754 to 1763 (sparknotes). This war was fought between Britain and France over dominance of the colonies. The colonists sided with the British and fought alongside their soldiers, meanwhile the French allied with the Native Americans.
After England’s separation from the catholic church and the death of Henry VIII, England was left in a state of unrest, especially when it came to national identity. Before Elizabeth’s reign, many people were unsure of the religion of the state, because of this many civil wars broke out within the kingdom to help solidify an identity. During the reign of henry VIII, the annulment of Henry’s first marriage with Catherine of Aragon resulted in the establishment of The Church of England in 1533. Since England was recognized as a catholic state, Henry’s profound actions incited religious reformation and would cause England to remain protestant until the ascension of his daughter Mary in 1553. The accession of Mary furthered uproar throughout the nation as it returned to Catholicism, which would yet again change the identity of England.
Introduction The signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on December 6, 1921 brought the Irish War of Independence to conclusion, halting the guerrilla warfare between forces from the Irish Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Unfortunately, the explicit terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 generated a mass amount of tension within Ireland, specifically between Irish Republicans. Ultimately, I believe the Irish Civil War came about as a conflict over whether or not to accept the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. The war engaged in two forms of warfare—conventional and guerrilla—the first lasting from June to August of 1922 and the latter from September 1922 to April of 1923.
“The memory of 1798 would be both a proud inspiration for some and a dire warning to others” . One thing that wasn’t influential was the United Irishmen as it collapsed shortly after the rebellion ended. “The movement collapsed under the strains of severe government repression, repeated disappointment of hopes for French assistance, the arrest or defection of its ablest leaders, and internal dissension and distrust” . Even though it collapsed, it could have still have made an effect on future rebellions. Ireland is known for its history of failed rebellions, but each rising holds a fundamental role in history.