Causes Street Children

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Smith (1993), has categorised three levels of causal factors of children running from home Macro level causes (community context) which are Urbanization, forced resettlement, overcrowding, non-compulsory education, school boycotts, destruction of teaching facilities, scarcity of job opportunities, lack of recreational facilities, violence, unrest, lack of community involvement, etcetera (Smith, 1993). Meso level causes (family context) which are Migratory patterns of parents, family disintegration, single-parent families, physical and psychological maltreatment of children, lack of parental control and supervision, collapse of traditional values, parental absence, presence of stepfathers, value clashes
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Ray et al. (2011) have stressed that the causes of street involvement are complex, multi-faceted, context specific and personal. West (2003) emphasizes that the factors contributing to children being on the street are interconnected and vary at all levels from national to international, region to region , country to country, district, communities, families and the child. Dawes, Bray and Van der Merwe (2007) as well as Rizzini and Undi (2003) assert that the rationale for children leaving home and going onto the streets may involve both push and pull factors. Both practitioners and researchers commonly emphasis the push and pull model to describe the issues children face in moving to the streets. In the research by Ward and Seager (2010) the children described push factors as the cause of leaving home for the streets. Push factors include domestic violence and substance abuse, failure to progress at school, household homelessness, and lack of caregivers for HIV affected…show more content…
They further mention inadequate living space at home, unemployment and lack of means as socio-economic factors that lead children to roam the streets.

2.3.3 Abuse, domestic violence and poor family relationships
Wargan and Dreshem (2009) allude that children leave home because of a change in the family setup, such as a divorce or remarriage of a parent, family relocation, alcoholism and violence. According to the surveys by Ward and Seager (2010) and Thomas de Benitez (2007), during in-depth interviews with children girls described sexual abuse, typically by stepfathers or their mothers ' boyfriends, while boys described vexed relationships with step-parents. The studies acknowledge that violence is the key trigger that precipitates children to move to the

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