The firearms specifically helped him win the Battle of Adwa which was fought on 1 March 1896 against Italy. The battle was fought due to a simple misinterpretation since the Treaty of Wichale was interpreted by the Italians as giving Italy a protectorate over Ethiopia. When Menelik heard about the Italian interpretation he denied having agreed to it and renounced the treaty giving reason to start a battle like the one in Adwa. This crowning battle secured Ethiopian sovereignty as it was a resolute defeat for the Italians. He turned to the Italians and French as well as to other European countries for Western technology too.
The early 1900s in Italy brought a number of changes that kept the society unbalanced. In the year 1900 Victor Emmanuel III came into power after his father was assassinated, Mussolini came into power with his Fascist movement, and a new Pope was elected, both in the 1920s. Emmanuel III was a weak man who never felt secure with his position because of his outward appearance (The Pope and Mussolini, pg. xxiii). Mussolini came to power in 1922 and Achille Ratti, later know as Pope Pius the XI, and was also elected in 1922.
The revolution came after a time where the Bolshevik revolution of 1917 had set the precedent for centralization and suppression of the left. Bolshevik revolution had impact on how the international actors like Great Britain and Germany sought to support the anti-Franco forces. The rise of fascism throughout the 20’s and 30’s, with the rise of Mussolini and Hitler, did not help the anti-Franco forces gain as much as momentum as hoped. Along with Stalin’s foreign policy to prioritize national interest came all too wrong to help the Anarchists and the Left. We must keep in mind that throughout this process, all communist parties that were on the rise during that time, were subordinate to the USSR, which had taken a different unexpected turn themselves decades earlier.
Italy was divided by different small and independent states. Each of these states acts as a little nation itself and was ruled by an oligarchic family which are in constant struggle with each other. This political division and the struggle between the states eventually weaken Italy. This event led to his thinking that unless a strong central government was established Italy would always be a target of annexation and conquest of powerful nations (Machiavelli, 1988). Machiavelli in his The Prince started the first step for the evolution of the modern concept of state.
One of the reasons for the failure to prevent the Nazi party was lack of united opposition to it. The SPD and the KPD did not put a united opposition to the Nazi in Germany. During the period 1928 to 1934, both have undermined the power of the Nazi Party. Whereas the SPD thought to bind Hitler legally, the KPD maintained that social democracy was a natural ally of fascism. However, the KPD sought to have alliance with individual members of the SPD making the ‘revolutionary United Front from Below’.
Napoleon caused the rise of nationalism by arousing national feelings of the Germans, the polish and the Italians. together with the exemplary success of the French army from 1792 onwards, the idea was widespread and cannot be suppressed. This greatly affected Europe, although it did not seem significant at that time-revolts did indeed happen, but they were soon suppressed but the military forces of the great powers. The spread of these ideologies that shaped the modern day Europe was impossible to be
On the other hand, in October 1922, radical fascist forces led by Mussolini marched military in Rome to show their political and military power. In front of this extreme action and in front of the weak political government of the Italian Prime Minister De Facta, the king, Vittorio Emanuele III, agreed to give Mussolini the task to form a government in the belief that he would have respected the law and brought peace and order in the country (Kitchen 138). Since then, the radicalization of Mussolini government towards a totalitarian state has occurred through a succession of laws, sometimes called “fascist revolution”, that “involved the destruction of the Italian liberal state”, (Lee 138). For instance, from January 1925
With a treaty that they had agreed upon with Carthage, it was no surprise that when Carthage looked to Sicily to gain more power Rome had to step in. With this intervention the first of the Punic Wars broke out. When the wars were over, the people that fought for Rome seeked help in getting out of debt and recovering their lands, they looked to anyone for help in these desperate times. Rome believed that if they did not assist these people they would look towards their opponents in Carthage for help, so rome gave up much needed funding to assist these people and debts were
Wheeler states, “we should settle our own problems before we undertake to settle the problems of Asia, Africa, Australia, South America and Europe.” Some of those problem, is one-third of the population are ill-fed, ill-housed, and ill-clothed. Though President Franklin Roosevelt wanted to intervene and help the British fight Germany, meanwhile Lindbergh supported isolationism. In October of 1939, Lindbergh was a prominent member of the America First Committee; committee who supported the defense of the western hemisphere and rejected the participation in European conflicts. Lindbergh believed that American soldiers do not have to fight those in the world who do not have the same system of life than America. The
McKinley wished to grant the Filipinos the freedom of self-government, but also knew that such a gift could be used against the American people in the war-prone world that they lived in. Instead, McKinley sought to annex the islands in order to help advance the Filipinos into a self-government when they were ready for the responsibility. At the same time, McKinley realized the strategic value the islands possessed in terms of military positioning around the world. These two reasons were the deciding factor McKinley needed in choosing his plan of action with the islands. Emilio Aguinaldo, however, disagreed with Mckinley's views.