The effects can be made through claiming through managed care by the organization. The managed care for the delivery and principles of finances, the patients and physicians must follow the policies and procedure of the health plans. The drug benefits in a pharmacy can be reduced in costs from 40 % to 10% comparing to people who are members and the non-members. The reimbursement if any the mechanism should be used by the MCOs that are effective. The MCOs should make sure that as much as the cost is low the services should be of a quality to make the patient keep coming.
Case Study 2: What Race Has to Do with Breast Cancer Health disparities among difference race groups continue to be a public health concern. Some races have higher chances of being diagnosed to certain types of serious health conditions as opposed to others. In the United States, African-American women continue to have the highest rates of breast cancer, and at higher risk of being diagnosed at a more advance stage of breast cancer. Although, research has demonstrated that biology and genes can put an individual at a higher risk of cancer, researchers are now identifying outside factors that are affecting many more women. For example, an article released by Time “What Race Has to Do with Breast Cancer” social and culture factors, such as social economic status, can greatly determine the health risk outcome.
Sometimes, if the lower income family does have insurance, it does not cover the evaluations and they are very expensive for out of pocket payment. Currently, in some states there are very limited options for people who have Medicaid for their primary insurance. If a psychologist does take Medicaid, the waiting list can be months, even years. It has been established that if a state has better reimbursement schedules, then treatment is more readily available. With the opposite being true with lower reimbursement rates (Thomas, Parish, Rose, & Kilany, 2012).
Discussion The combined effects of inequality and structural racism indicators at risk of SGA birth income were examined and found that the structural racism, assessed against racial inequalities in education, employment, and prison was strongly associated with the birth of SGA when It occurred in combination with high income inequality. Relations were not explained by state differences in poverty or absolute individual differences in demographic characteristics or factors of biological or behavioral risk. When co-occur at high levels, the combined effects of income inequality and structural racism increased risk of SGA birth almost 2 times. This effect was not influenced by race, implying that the deleterious context of high inequality of
African American Reparations: A Conceptual Research Aims and Objectives Racial differences in socioeconomic status (education, income, occupation, health) are well-documented. Research by Gaskin, Headen, and White-Means (2005) found that black people have a higher rate of cardiovascular diseases, breast cancer, and diabetes compared to the rest of the population. They are less likely to receive optimal care for their health conditions, therefore, they are more likely to die from their diseases. Furthermore, black people are three times more likely to live in poverty than white people, and their median household earnings are significantly lower than whites. Slavery, Jim Crow laws, and other forms of discrimination contributed to African Americans’
In conducting reviews of research related to health disparities and lack of access to healthcare for minorities, there are several articles that cite data and methods that show the relationship to minorities with low SES are significantly impacted. According to the peer reviewed article, “Reducing Health Disparities in Underserved Communities” there is a significant disparity in access to healthcare for minorities health services among whites, blacks, and Hispanics over the past two decades. The article also cited several causes to this lack of access such as
The authors addressed the birth disparity outcomes between the African American and White population. They stated that racial discrimination interconnects with income disparities, poverty, cultural isolation, stress, etc., As a result of these factors the African Americans still have the highest rate of infant mortality in the nation, and the African American babies die before the first birthday twice the rate comparing to White babies. Greg, R., Alexander, Michael, D. Kogan, & Nabukera, S. (2000).
In recent times, the subject of health disparities has attracted a lot of attention through the media report in both local and national level.in this essay, the health condition of African American will be discussed in this in the following areas as their health status, barriers to health, diverse population and disparities, and health promotion approach to improving this situation. Health Status: According to the 2014 National Health Interview Survey, 13.5% of all African Americans have less than average health (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014a). Averagely, the African-American have higher prevalence of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension compared to the national ratio. Further study reveals that 48
These factors increase the minority groups of being uninsured, lack of health care accessibility, receive poorer quality care and experiencing worse health outcomes, including low income individuals and black people (Ubri & Artiga, 2016). In United States, the healthcare disparities are very obvious and it can be clearly seen between urban and rural
The third payment plan varies and is dependent on the plan that they are using. Because the medical industry works to become more and more accurate in all medical terms, it is necessary for patients being just as accurate when applying (2015). This way, clients will get just the health plan they need. Another prominent health plan is Medicaid.
Health disparities is not only a Clayton County issue but a national issue as well. Consequently, Healthy People 2020 initiated a decisive goal to reduce health disparities among all Americans by the year 2020. One of this goals of Healthy People 2020 is the reduction of infant mortality rate among Americans to a target goal of 6.0 deaths per 1,000 live births.1 In 2015, infant mortality rates for black non-Hispanics were 2.2 times that of white non-Hispanics. As it relates to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) black non-Hispanics mothers were 2 times greater than that of white non-Hispanics mothers.
Different people may criticize adoption of the system but their points have weak foundations. From different perspectives, such arguments tend to support the inefficiency that is persistent in most healthcare facilities. Application of the systems is seen to take of everyone’s welfare while improving the economy of the country. Moreover, success in other developed countries shows that the system is not difficult to apply. The government also needs to consider issues such as viewing of healthcare access by individuals as a right.
The healthcare sector is expected to continue with its accelerated growth momentum and by 2020 it is expected to reach $ 280 billion . As per 2015 data, no. of beds to population ratio is just 0.09% and no. of physicians to population ratio is 0.07%. Comparatively bed to population ratio is 0.38% and no. of physician to population is 0.19%. The numbers are similar for US and UK .