2.3.5 Celebrity-brand/product Congruence While analyzing the influences of a celebrity endorser on consumer attitudes and behaviors, it is critical to take into account of the celebrity-brand/product congruence, is also referred as the match-up hypothesis, which is another important stream in celebrity endorsement research. The match-up hypothesis concerns the necessity for an appropriate fit or a match between the celebrity and the brand or product being endorsed (Ilicic & Webster, 2011; Till & Busler, 1998). Kahle and Homer (1985) also depicted that there should be a fit or congruence between a celebrity endorser and the endorsed product or brand. Advertising effectiveness is enhanced when the celebrity endorser’s image fits or matches with
This theory refers to consumer’s behavior, when the consumer compares their self-image with the advertisement and the celebrity endorser. The more famous and attractive models in an advertisement conveys a greater image to the consumers in the sense of values and personality. The use of celebrity in advertisement provides a framework of reference and also points of comparison by which an individual evaluates the attitude in making a decision (kamins, 1990). The reappearing image of the celebrity endorser in social media further pushes the feeling of knowledge of this latter, which is also known as the concept of “remote intimacy”(theory given by Horton & Wohl in 1956). This congruence with the self-image, by certain brands, is also defined by the fact that celebrities plays a vital and role concerning the opinions to which consumer seeks to be
Celebrity endorsement aims to create knowledge and create interest in the minds of customers. To do so several marketing techniques are implemented. Celebrity Endorsement is one of the influencing tool by which advertisers try to leverage the image and identification of the celebrity to promote a brand or company. Celebrity endorsement makes the advertisement dynamic, fascinating, interesting, but attention is also taken by customers.So far the celebrity is taken as a role model and in return these celebrities impact their lives. Celebrity endorsement is being done since long time, in fact not too late when advertisement techniques were taken on new shapes because advertisers recognized soon that by using public figured personalities in advertisements
McCracken (1989) Seno, Lukas (2007) and Pedhiwal (2011) observed that 'Celebrity Endorsement' today has become a trend and tool to a successful way for product marketing and brand building. Ohanian (1990) stated that celebrity endorsement is one of the strategies which companies believe and use to persuade a large number of people to purchase a product and increase market share. Park et al (2011) According to Pikas et al (2012), the use of celebrities to endorse products is a popular strategy used by lots marketers and companies. Athlete endorsers, is a part of celebrity endorsers who are also too popular and have their own distinct stand in the minds of consumers. In the United States, one of four advertisements and promotion uses celebrities
To start with, when celebrity start getting less popular, then the figures of their fans would fall too .Thus, the marketing of his/her advertised products acquires less recognition in the marketplace. After that, some personalities are really huge and the brand could be promptly outshined by the fame of that person (Mello, 2014). If this occurs, devoting millions of euros to such adverts begins to make no logic at all; several commercials even focus on celebrities excessively, this means there is no brand remembrance (Mello, 2014). Significantly, celebrity endorsement is very expensive and there is no assurance that it will bring reward in trade. For this reason, companies must think beforehand hiring any famous figure because there would be no turning back after spending too much money.
Attractiveness of celebrity endorsement will grab intention of consumers. Celebrity endorsement is used by companies to enjoy media exposure. Brand equity will be improved due to celebrity endorsement (Farrell, Karels, Monfort and McClatchey, 2000; Erdogan et al., 2001). Celebrity endorsement will give companies a competitive advantage over similar brands. However, celebrity endorsement will not be effective if they endorse more than one brand (Solomon,
Celebrities share their personal stories through social media so that they can steal the attention from other celebrities or from anything important happened in the media (Goodman, 512). They want the attention to be concentrated on them and their personal life (Goodman, 513). Thus, the notion that they are the most important person in the world creates egotism. Moreover, celebrities are capturing pictures and posting them in social networks for the sake of attention (Goodman, 512). For instance, awareness campaign or even visiting a new restaurant, the celebrity posts it on the social media networks he or she are simply saying “look where I am”.
Gabler (2001) introduces the concept of “human entertainment”, by which means that a celebrity is not just an entertainer, rather a person who by the process of living provides general entertainment for us. Celebrity endorser Solomon (2009) stated that celebrity endorsement is the use of famous people like the actors, actresses, singers, dancers, musicians, artists and athletes. According to McCracken (1989), these famous people had a great influence on the consumer buying behavior of the individuals that is why it is the most powerful tool of advertising. Credibility According to Mowen and Minor, (1998) source credibility refers to the extent that a source is perceived to be believed with regard to expertise and trustworthiness. McCracken (1989) describe that source credibility is describing how trust and expertise influences the endorsement process.
The research by Rashid et al (2002) asserts that celebrities can assist in the recognition of brand names, create positive feelings towards the brand and create a distinct personality for the endorsed brand. Celebrity endorsement is also believed to generate a greater likelihood of customers’ choosing the endorsed brand due to the existence of factors such as brand trustworthiness. Trustworthiness refers to the honesty and believability of the celebrity. The use of celebrity endorsements in an advertising strategy could enhance the marginal value of the advertisement expenditures and create brand equity. According to Salvatore and Washington (2007), the particular product – endorser combinations result in better overall attitude towards the product, greater intent to purchase the advertised product and more credibility for the endorser.
It contains background of study, statement of the problem, scope of study, objectives of the study, research question, and target user and limitation question. It also beginning of the research. In Chapter 2, researcher states the literature review of research. This is to support the details of research. Chapter 3 is about research methodology.