Celebrity Brand Congruence

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2.3.5 Celebrity-brand/product Congruence
While analyzing the influences of a celebrity endorser on consumer attitudes and behaviors, it is critical to take into account of the celebrity-brand/product congruence, is also referred as the match-up hypothesis, which is another important stream in celebrity endorsement research.
The match-up hypothesis concerns the necessity for an appropriate fit or a match between the celebrity and the brand or product being endorsed (Ilicic & Webster, 2011; Till & Busler, 1998). Kahle and Homer (1985) also depicted that there should be a fit or congruence between a celebrity endorser and the endorsed product or brand. Advertising effectiveness is enhanced when the celebrity endorser’s image fits or matches with
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Finding affirmed by Kahle and Homer (1985) indicated that a more attractive celebrity endorser is more effective than a less attractive celebrity spokesperson, only when the endorsed product is attractiveness-related such as perfumes, fashion apparels or cosmetics. Kamins (1990) also indicated that for the attractiveness-related products, for instances cosmetic goods and apparels, an attractive celebrity endorser with higher likeability and familiarity significantly enhances the attitudes towards the advertisement and the advertised brand.

In the contexts of product placement, optimal match between the celebrity and the placed product is also critical in the practice of celebrity-involved PPL. The congruence between celebrity involved in PPL and placed brand or products can be a viewed as a powerful endorsement, whether the placed products are verbal mentioned or used, worn, or handled by celebrity, because the personal qualities and source characteristics of celebrity are transferred to the placed brand or products (Friedman & Friedman, 1979; McCracken, 1989).

Since this study intends to provide a comprehensive illustration of the celebrity-involved PPL by including celebrity-brand/product congruence in the picture. To this end, the celebrity-brand/product congruence warrants a careful examination for a thorough understanding of
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celebrities and the fictional characters that they role-play) (Horton & Wohl, 1956; Russell & Stern, 2006; Thomson, 2006). The Para-social theory is also regarded as the degree to which an individual express strong emotional reaction or attachment to either a real or imagined character (Ilicic & Webster, 2011)
Attachment is regarded as “an emotion-laden target-specific affective bond among an individual and a certain object” (Thomson, MacInnis, & Park, 2005). The resulting kinships and affiliations can influence consumers’ emotional feelings and consumption behavior (Russell & Stern, 2006; Tian & Hoffner, 2010). Stronger the attachment to and identification of the celebrity, stronger the consumers’ desire to follow the lifestyle of and decision made by the protagonists. This is because the character is viewed as an important referent other (Su, Huang, Brodowsky, & Kim, 2011; Tian & Hoffner, 2010). In addition, identification and empathy with the celebrities (characters) provides a robust foundation for celebrity influence (Balasubramanian et al.,

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