2.0 Literature Review 2.1 Celebrity Endorsement 2.1.1 Celebrity Endorsement and the Selection of Celebrity Endorser Celebrity endorsement is a common and widely-used marketing strategy to promote brand awareness, brand recognition and product sales by using celebrities with well-known reputation and influence (McCracken, 1989). The use of celebrities in marketing promotion events already has a long history and is not a recent phenomenon (Kaikati, 1987). Celebrities endorsement can be traced back to the late nineteenth century. A typical example was the involvement of Queen Victoria with Cadbury's Cocoa (Sherman, 1985). In the past decade, the use of celebrities has rapidly increased (Runyan et al., 2009).
Using celebrities can help companies to design unique ads and engender a positive effect on the attitude and sales intention towards the brand (Ranjbarian, Shekarchizade & Momeni, 2010). Celebrity endorsement has been applied for many years. The strategy of celebrity endorsement has positive result for both company and celebrity. Using a celebrity, the consumer receives a positive feeling of security and association. Consumers would like to recognize themselves with the celebrity and they buy the product because they would like to be as the celebrity.
There is a lot of waiting around to become famous while the world rages around us, with terrorism and war happening around us. However, we’re so caught up in social media and the latest celebrity stories, that we simply either don’t notice or don’t care about the outside world. A quote from the article “Celebrity Culture is Harmful” states “The American oligarchy-1 percent of whom control more wealth than the bottom 90 percent combined-are the characters we most envy and watch on television. They live and play in multimillion-dollar mansions. They marry models or professional athletes.
Take the case of Chris Brown for example, Body by Milk, the people behind the popular “Got Milk” campaign, had to terminate their contact with the singer after his notorious scandal; Wrigley also did the same thing since hardly anyone wants their brand to associate with his negative public image. Sung and Kim (2010) stated that the personality of the brand has a significant impact on the trust and loyalty consumers have for that brand; that is, when the personality of the chosen celebrity contradicts what the brand represents, customer trust and loyalty for the brand will be damaged. Negative publicity associated with the endorsed celebrity will lead to the decrease in customer’s perception of the brand being endorsed (Till and Shimp, 1998). Moreover, when a celebrity endorser adjusted his or her image, the perception of customers for the brand and its product will also be affected (Kaikati, 1987). Sticking to their well-known image is critical for celebrities in endorsement process because they can send an evident meaning to the product and brand they endorse (McCracken, 1989).
It seems to be the case that the average American citizen is obsessed with celebrities. Many love looking at the social media accounts of famous people they admire, and tabloids and gossip magazines are at every grocery counter, as if they are hoping you will buy them and update yourself on the latest dramatic breakup between two talentless pop stars. Is this sort of culture beneficial? The answer is no. Celebrity culture is not beneficial to either the public or the celebrity in any way.
Celebrity endorsement if used effectively makes the brand stand out, enhances brand recall and facilitates instant awareness. Celebrities like film stars have not only been successful in gathering huge public attention, but also in increasing sales volume.
1. Introduction Celebrity endorsement is now a day's a very useful practice of advertising among various tools to market the product or services as well, for marketers it has been a winning formula. It is easy to select the best celebrity in advertisement but it is quite difficult to create the association between the product and celebrity The capability of two advertising tools celebrity endorsement and event sponsorship have an impact on consumer pre-purchase decision including perceptions with regard to product quality and uniqueness is the focus of this study.. Marketers are interested to make more customers who are potential and are influenced by celebrities. Day by day consumers are exposing to so many of voices and images through media including audio visual aids.
Celebrity endorsement is a billion-dollar industry today, with companies signing deals hoping that it can help their brand and make their product stand out from others by giving them a unique and relevant position in the mind of consumers. Celebrity endorsement can be an excellent means of marketing a product, but companies must consider potential risks before investing in a celebrity to display their brand’s product. These advertising companies have a moral obligation to monitor the behaviour of any endorsed celebrity that there brand and product is associated with, to protect themselves from any harm. It is also important to weigh the pros and cons of having such a well-known person publicly displaying a company’s product. Popularity, connection to the product, money and personal behaviour have major effects on endorsement deals.
Advertisement helps to provide well prepared messages to target groups, in this way it is encouraging marketing projects of the products and services of most companies. Today celebrity endorsement has become most popular form of advertising (Choi &Rifon, 2007). Flipping through the different TV slots, print media and radios or web-based social networking buyers find a significant number of endorsements. The majority of the TV slots are currently using big names as endorsers to promote brands (Erdogan et al., 2001). The growth in fame of VIP support can be credited to the capacity to take hold gathering
Daniel Lawler 152330 8A – VWO English Academic Writing Anita Maeesen-Kreugel 09.11.2015 Celebrity is now less about talent and more about looks than it has ever Celebrities nowadays are all about looks and image rather than actual talent. A celebrity, as defined by dictionary.com is: “A famous or well-known person”. Currently a brilliant voice or amazing guitar plucking skills cannot determine a celebrity. Furthermore an enthusiastic and appealing image is needed. Having an attractive look is all it needs to become famous, as the talent can often be assisted through various factors such as auto-tune, photoshop and playback.