Cell Division As A Eukaryotic Cell

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Cell Division As a eukaryotic organism grows, cells divide and create new cells based on its DNA. This is called cell division. Cell division is the process when a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division occurs as part of the cell cycle. The two types of cell division processes are mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is the process where somatic, or non-reproductive, cells are created, while Meiosis is the process that creates gametes, reproductive cells like sperm and eggs. Before discoursing these processes, one must discuss the different forms of genetic material. These are essentially the three forms of a cell’s genetic material. Chromatin is its loosest, least-organized form, which floats freely around inside the nuclear envelope. Chromatids are formed from condensed chromatin and are one-half of each chromosome. In its complete form, two identical “sister chromatids” are joined together by a centromere to form a full chromosome. To begin with, mitosis and meiosis are vastly different. Cells are either diploid or haploid. A diploid cell contains two sets of genetic information in homologous chromosome pairs, while a haploid cell contains only one set of genetic information in single copies of each chromosome. Non-reproductive somatic cells are diploid cells, containing two sets of chromosomes. For instance, human cells have 23 chromosome pairs (46 total chromosomes), with one set of genetic information inherited from each of the human’s parents.

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