For future experiments, other chemicals found in other substances should be used in replace of cupric sulfate in this experiment, testing the same hypothesis. That way, we can learn what substances affect the lives of paramecium cells. If so, is it a positive effect or a negative effect, like plant fertilizer has. Valuable information can be obtained regarding paramecium cells and what substance can hinder their
In each solution, the ethanol was a bit redder than the last. In the pre-lab, we read a few paragraphs on the process of the cell membrane and what happens with a beet cell membrane. We now know that beets contain a red pigment called betacyanin, which is located in the vacuoles of the cells. We learned that as long as the cell and the membranes are intact, then the betacyanin will stay in the cells.
The effects of alcohol on Biological Membranes. Introduction In this experiment it will be analysed the damage alcohols can have on biological membranes. Membranes are made up of lipids and proteins. Membranes usually help maintain the balance in a cell as it holds all the cellular materials. There are various membranes and all have a variation of functions.
Transfection: One of the methods of gene transfer where the genetic material is deliberately introduced into the animal cell in view of studying various functions of proteins and the gene. This mode of gene transfer involves creation of pores on the cell membrane enabling the cell to receive the foreign genetic material. Transfection can be carried out using calcium phosphate (i.e. tricalcium phosphate), by electroporation, by cell squeezing or by mixing a cationic lipid with the material to produce liposomes which fuse with the cell membrane and deposit their cargo inside. The choice of methods of DNA transfer depends upon the target cells in which transformation will be performed.
The membrane is selectively permeable which certain molecules are allowed to enter and exit the cell. The transport of molecules that enter and exit out of the cell require an endomembrane system that separates and compartmentalizes the different cellular functions of a variety of organelles. In Cell Structures Involved in
The more concentration of the enzyme, the more browning appears. Catechol oxidase is found in cell cytoplasm, their function in plants are to "help protect damaged plants bacterial and fungal disease." The objective of this experiment is to test the presences of catechol oxidase in various fruits and vegetables. Our group hypothesis states that, If catechol oxidase is present in the selected extracts, the null hypothesis is that catechol oxidase is not present in the selected extracts. Next, the prediction would be, if catechol oxidase doesn't differ with other enzyme sources, then the rates will
This can occur through vesicles that are formed by throttling the plasma membrane and then penetrating into the cell (endocytosis), or they merge with it to free their contents (exocytosis) outside. There are three types of endocytosis known: • phagocytosis - very common among unicellular protists, who use it to feed themselves; in the human body, some types of white blood cells incorporate cells and foreign substances into phagocytosis. • pinocytosis - a constant activity of pinocytosis is carried out by the endothelium, the tissue that covers the blood capillaries and which allows the cells of the surrounding tissues to withdraw fluids from the blood. • Receptor-mediated endocytosis - a quick and efficient method for withdrawing substances that can be found in the environment even at low concentrations. Finally, exocytosis is important for the secretion of many substances, including digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas and materials for the construction of the plant cell wall.
Leah Romero 10/30/2017 Conclusion Lab 3 Chem 102L In lab 3, fundamentals of chromatography, the purpose was to examine how components of mixtures can be separated by taking advantage of different in physical properties. A huge process in this lab was paper chromatography, which was used to isolate food dyes that are found in different drink mixes. The different chromatograms of FD&C dyes were compared to identify which dyes are present in each of the mixes. Chromatograms where made for the known FD&C and for the three Kool-Aid samples. The retention factor for each dye was calculated.
In this lab when looking at cells, we observed the salinity and osmolarity of the cell when placed in the environment. With the different concentrations of NaCl, we are able to see how different environment can constrain an organism and see the wide range of responses to regulate in cell’s osmolarity. The cells we studied was sheep red blood cells (erythrocyte), because they are the most studied membrane system and therefore used as ideal membrane to study the relationship between water and the passing of the different concentration of NaCl across the membrane. The purpose of the experiment was to observe the cell and infer which direction of the flow of the water due to the cell volume change. This lets us to notice what in the red blood cell was able to permeable across the cell membrane, since they were placed in different osmolality solutions we are able observe the tonicity of the cell’s behavior.
The regulation of metabolism may be from within the cell or outside. The metabolic flux can be regulated by non-equilibrium reactions. The intracellular regulatory strategies include allosteric enzymes, substrate cycles, enzyme interconversion cycles etc. the cyclic AMP and phosphoinositide systems are major mechanisms of signal transduction. Metabolism is also regulated by hydrophobic hormones which enter their target cells and are able to interact with intracellular receptor molecules.
The human retina is full of photoreceptor cells, cells that detect light, that are essential for proper vision. These cells contain the protein, rhodopsin, that enables them to detect light. When exposed to light part of these proteins detach from the phospholipid bilayer and enter the cell to be either destroyed or recycled to form more rhodopsin. However, the process by which rhodopsin is recycled has been mostly unknown until now. Similar processes are used in other cells to maintain the large surface areas they need to function, such as cells in the gut and lungs.
Cellular Respiration Lab Introduction In this lab, the primary investigation was to discover which factors affect cellular respiration. In this particular inquiry, the factor tested was the amount of time the lentil seeds were germinated. This study was performed in order to understand the process of cellular respiration as well as be able to measure and observe gas concentration as a result of impacting factors. Cellular respiration is necessary for life-processes, converting glucose and oxygen into ATP, carbon dioxide, and water, in a series of metabolic reactions. This process can be measured in numerous ways, such as observing the amount of heat produced or changes in temperature in general (since cellular respiration is exergonic.)