Describe in detail how these hormones regulate blood glucose levels. After eating a meal, the level of glucose in the body increases and it promotes to secrete insulin from the beta cells of the pancreas. Then insulin triggers the uptake of glucose from the blood to the cells by decreasing the level of blood glucose. Or insulin can stimulate the formation of glycogen from the glucose which also reduces the concentration of glucose in the blood (Reece et al., 910). If the concentration of glucose in the blood is low / below the normal range, it leads to the secretion of glycogen from the alpha cells.
Glucose taken in by fat cells contributes to the amount of fat in these cells. Insulin need to be released within a few minutes, but it takes 30-60 minutes for the insulin gene to be switched on - beta cells make insulin in advance (in vesicles waiting for an increase to occur). When extra glucose is detected in the beta cell, the vesicle fuses to the plasma membrane and releases the insulin in to the blood stream. Once it has travelled through the blood stream and found its specific receptor, it binds to the receptor and becomes activated. The binding of the insulin hormone and its receptor causes the cell to change its intracellular shape and proportion, allowing for the hormone on the outside to control the cell inside.
Studies have also revealed that losing as little as 10 pounds can have a significant impact in lowering elevated blood pressure. Some of the exercises that can help with weight loss include jogging, running a 12-minute mile, jumping rope, playing basketball or tennis, cross-country skiing, bicycling at 12-13.9 mph and swimming. Treading water makes your muscles work harder to keep you afloat, making it an easy way to burn calories in the water. Aerobic Exercise for Physical Health A resting heart rate of 60-80 beats per minute is considered normal in an adult. The better shape you are in, the fewer beats per
Controlled Variables temperature, pH, sucrase + sucrose incubation time 4. Describe what is measured as an indicator of sucrase activity and why this is an indicator of sucrase activity. I believe glucose and fructose was used as an indicator because they are what produces sucrose and sucrose creates more sucrase activity. 5. Explain why denatured sucrase was used as a control.
Steps one to three is when the energy is invested. Steps four and five involve the glucose splitting into smaller molecules. Steps six to ten is when the energy is released in the form of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) and NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide). In step one the enzyme Hexokinase uses the ATP to phosphorylate the glucose. This is an investment of energy.
What stimulates the production of this hormone? What effect does it have on the kidneys? (3 marks) The atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) hormone is produced in specialized myocardial cells primarily n the atria of the heart (Silverthorn et al., 2013). Natriuretic peptides are released by the heart when increased blood volume causes increased atrial stretch (Silverthorn et al., 2013). At the systemic level, ANP enhances sodium and water excretion to decrease blood volume.
Hypothesis: Increasing substrate concentration will increase the initial reaction rate until it stops increasing and flattens out. Independent Variable: Substrate concentration Dependent Variable: The substrate itself, 1.0% Hydrogen Peroxide How Dependent Variable will be Measured: Hydrogen Peroxide will be used in every experiment, just with different test tubes. The amount of Hydrogen Peroxide in the mixing table is the amount that will be added to each test tube. Rationale: Enzymes are used to make reactions faster. When there is more substrate the enzyme will be forced to work harder to get rid of it faster.
Higher body temperatures are found also when the body is undergoing a high level of respiration, and this causes haemoglobin to have a lower affinity for oxygen, meaning that oxygen is released more freely to keep respiration going. 2,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid is an isomer of a glycolytic intermediate from respiration. It has a high affinity for deoxygenated haemoglobin, causing the haemoglobin to release the remaining oxygen more easily. It is well known that low O2 will encourage increased breathing, as will high CO2 – O2 is vital for the continued production of energy and thus life, and CO2 is dangerous in high enough quantities and must be removed from the body. Therefore, it is of vital importance for the body to recognise and compensate for disrupted blood gas levels.
Cell Respiration Lab Research Question What is the optimal temperature for germinating pea-seeds where the rate of respiration is the greatest? Background Information Cell Respiration refers to the biochemical process conducted by the cells of an organism that combines glucose and oxygen to produce energy in the form of ATP, along with two by-products, water and carbon dioxide. The equation representing this chemical reaction is shown below. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP Although plants and animals have different methods of obtaining glucose, the cell respiration process occurs in both types of organisms. Many external factors in the environment may affect the organism's’ rate of respiration such as the temperature of the surrounding,
Having more participants would create a better average and allowing better results for conclusions. Taking the bacteria count more often than once a week could allow for a better reflection of the line. Overall, many different things which were mentioned could be changed to take away unwanted variables and provide better data for a conclusion to either support or deny our hypothesis of chewing gum removes more MSB and MSR than sucking on a
Higher muscle lactate accumulation and venous plasma lactate concentration is observed in a high ambient temperature compared to a moderate temperature. It was previously shown that muscular glycogen utilization is enhanced in during exercise under high temperature (Febbraio et al., 1994). Therefore it is thought that the increase concentration of lactate in muscle under high temperature is caused by accelerated anaerobic glycolysis. Thus more lactate is released into the blood stream. When the exercise to exhaustion in the high temperature happens, muscle glycolygen are not exhausted.
E.L Tarbox made ankle weights in 1970, to see how weight could affect running speed, and athletic performance. E.L. Tarbox wanted a solution for quick weight loss, so he figured out the added weights will make the body pump more blood and work harder, breaking more cells, and make your muscles more in fatigue. His conclusion led to him figuring out that with temporary weight, the body muscles work harder, so when the weight is removed, you have stronger muscles, and his experiment was a success. My project can make the world a better place, by showing that if people can lose a certain amount of weight, they can feel less weighed down, and overall, just better. A similar science fair project to mine is: “How does weight effect jumping distance” In that science fair project, different test subjects were required to jump three times, with, and without ankle weights.