This catalyzed the reaction which contributed to the oxidized form of naphthol which in turn formed purple precipitate which helped in determining the location of the human serum albumin. Therefore, absence of purple bands on the nitrocellulose membrane (Figure 3) proved that protein was not fully transferred to the nitrocellulose membrane. Lack of transfer of protein to the nitrocellulose membrane maybe due to the inaccurate rolling of the rod to collect the proteins or maybe the washings were done too many
This organelle can be found both on the rough ER and free in cytoplasm, but the proteins produced in each place have different functions; proteins produced in the cytoplasm are typically used within the cell while proteins produced by the rough ER are usually exported outside the cell. The ribosomes themselves are produced in nucleolus and cells that need a lot of protein have a lot of ribosomes . With larger diameters than microfilaments, microtubules are stiff organelles that help maintain the cell 's shape as part of the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is the structure within the cytoplasm of the cell that helps move organelles inside the cell, therefore microtubules are attributed with the function of intracellular movement . In addition to the cytoskeleton, microtubules also make up the cilia and flagella of the cell.
The measurement was taken at 230nm, 260nm and 280nm. The DNA concentration was calculated by using this formula: DNA (µg/ml) =OD260 x 50 x dilution factor For more accurate reading, we had used NanoDrop™ which directly gave us the DNA concentration. Digestion of DNA with Restriction Endonucleases Two eppendorf tubes were prepared for digestion of plasmid and SOD gene. For plasmid digestion tube, 6µl plasmid DNA, 2µl buffer R, 1µl BamHI, 1µl HindIII and 10µl distilled water were added. While, 5µl of purified PCR product, 2µl buffer R, 1µl BamHI, 1µl HindIII and 11µl distilled water were added into SOD gene tube.
For this reason the DNA is denatured into single strands by incubation with sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH). If the DNA fragments are larger than 15kb, the gel can be treated with acid such as dilute HCl prior to blotting. The DNA is depurinated by the acid and breaks down into smaller pieces which allows more efficient transfer from the gel to the membrane. The Southern Blot Method begins with the DNA fragments being transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane. This is a sheet of special blotting paper.
We added 1 ml of distilled water to test tubes labelled 2, 3,4 and 5. . To tube 1 we added 1ml of standard protein solution and recorded the concentration of the standard protein as 10mg/ml. To tube 2 we added 1ml of standard protein solution and shake it so that it can mix well. With a fresh pipette we removed 1ml from tube number 2 and added it to tube 3 then gently shake the tube. With another fresh pipette we removed 1ml from tube 3 and added it to tube 4, shake well.
Characterization of Ethosomes Microscopic Examination of Particle Size and Shape Microscopic analysis was performed to determine the average size of ethosomes . A sample of ethosomes was suitably diluted with distilled water in order to observe individual vesicle and a drop of diluted suspension was put on a glass slide covered with cover slip and examined under microscope (magnification 15 × 45 X ). All measurements were performed in triplicates and the formed vesicles were spherical in shape. Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies Determination of surface morphology (roundness, smoothness and formation of aggregates) of finasteride ethosomal gel with polymer was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ethosomal
With the use of colorimeter, it will show how much light can be transmitted through the solutions. When the cells in the solution are centrifuged, they go to the bottom of the tube to form pallets. The liquid above the pallet are clear then they are able to quickly transmit light. However if the cells has erupted, the hemoglobin is released will be left above the pallet and observed cloudy. This will cause the solution to have less light transmitted during the use of
When oxygen is breathed in, the red blood cells in the lungs have a low concentration of oxygen and a high concentration of carbon dioxide. Once the new oxygen molecules come into contact with the red blood cells they diffuse into the cells and down the concentration gradient and the carbon dioxide diffuses out of the red blood cells and out of the lungs. Both osmosis and simple diffusion of CO2 are processes that involve the movement of materials across a membrane. As for osmosis, it requires water in order to experience this movement where as simple diffusion of CO2 doesn’t require any additional help. Aquaporins are integral proteins that aid in the transfer of water across membranes via a channel.
These substrates include: glucose, palmitate, amino acids and propionate. The aim was to make sure that any type of blood spot card would be able to show the chemical structure of the chemicals on them. Therefore, four different sampling cards were chosen: FTA DMKA-A, FTA DMPK-B, VWR 237 and Protein Saver 903. These cards supposedly have different structures, so it would be possible to see which one was more successful with each of the chemicals named above. In order to be able to use these sampling cards, the instruments such as Harris Uni-core 3mm cutters were necessary.
When your body has more sugar than it needs it will take it and store it in your livers, with the help of insulin, of course, so you can use it when doing physical activities or between your meals. Insulin is basically an equalizer it lowers high sugar levels and increases low sugar levels. When the human body is resistant to or does not produce enough insulin for the body chances are you going to suffer from hyperglycemia, high blood sugar levels, inflated blood levels will cause long-term complexity if they remain inflated for long periods of time.