1.2.2 Intravascular Catheters and Central Venous Catheters Intravascular catheters are also one of the important risk factors in the acquisition of candidemia. Candida species adhere avidly to materials used in intravascular catheters and provide a potential nidus for infection. Some species like Candida parapsilosis are especially implicated in intravascular catheter-related infections in neonates and in the paediatric age group. The role played by intravascular catheters in perpetuating candidemia has implications for its management. Removal of vascular catheters has been advocated as an adjunctive strategy for treating patients with catheter-related candidemia.
A catheter is inserted into the vein in the arm, leg or chest and threaded through the vain until it reaches a larger vein near the heart. Venous catheters are used to give long-term medicine or large amounts of blood or fluid to the patients. Most catheters are composed of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon), polyurethane, polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride. Teflon catheters have been associated with fewer infectious complications than the other materials used. Catheters are usually coated with an antimicrobial or antiseptic agent such as chlorhexidine or rifampin.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE HISTORY OF THE PORTAL SYSTEM 384-322 BC - Aristoteles was the first person who described about portal vein(PV). 300-250 BC - Herophilos recognized the importance of portal venous system in acting as the zone of discharge for all the resorbent veins from the intestine 129-199AD - Galenus described the portal venous system along with the intrahepatic branches 1597-1677 - Glisson demonstrated the independent nature of portal venous circulation from rest of the blood circulation ANATOMY OF THE PORTAL VENOUS SYSTEM The system of veins that transport blood from of the spleen, alimentary tract, pancreas along with the gallbladder constitute the portal venous system. It is a valveless system that enters the liver via the porta
A coordinated plan should be followed by health care facilities which are located in the same region especially when they fight against antibiotic-resistant organisms and C. difficile. First, we will discuss Central line-associated bloodstream infections. A central line is a catheter that is placed in one of the major veins in the body, usually in the neck (internal jugular vein), or in the groin (femoral vein). Through it, blood can be collected, medications & fluids can be given. It gives an access to a much larger vein than a regular IV catheter do, it also remains in place for long periods of time (weeks to months) than regular IV catheters, that’s why the central line is much more likely to cause serious infection especially in patients admitted to intensive care
A tube is inserted into the blood vein by a radiologist in the lower part of the neck or groin where an instrument can be passed. The enlarged vein is monitored and the doctor will release a coil that will block the testicular veins and the blood flow will be interrupted hence repair the varicocele. This is safer for the patient however; caution has to be taken so that veins can open up after the procedure. Some veins which will fail will be blocked and regular checkups should be carried out to ensure they heal well. If they do not heal well, it can cause more problems in the future and it will be difficult to be treated and can cause
A capsulotomy is the technique used when a patient wants to exchange a smaller implant for a larger one. This technique allows Dr. Guillot to enlarge the pocket and reposition the implant. Pocket Change A severe capsular contracture usually requires a pocket change: An implant previously placed submuscularly may need to be repositioned subglandularly (or vice versa). Additionally, a pocket change can allow Dr. Guillot to place additional tissue over the breast implant and/or improve the way a subglandular implant looks. Symmastia Repair To repair a symmastia, the skin that lays over the sternum is sutured back down and the medial pockets are closed off, creating two discreet pockets.
Peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) is the invasive procedure that most commonly practised clinical procedure. There are over half of patients admitted to the hospital required peripheral intravascular cannula (PIVC) inserted. However, there is no data reported on the use of PIVC in Malaysia. The surveillance of the estimated used of PIVC in developing countries such as Malaysia is still under evaluated due to lack of resources and trained staff. Since, PIVC required penetration of a catheter into the bloodstream, risk of catheter blood stream infection is existed.
In this procedure, the coronary artery is opened and a small piece of metal that looks like a coil or spring (stent) is placed to keep the artery open. Coronary artery bypass grafting. In this procedure, a section of blood vessel from another part of the body is removed and then inserted where it will allow blood to go around (bypass) the blocked part of the coronary artery. Cardiac rehabilitation. This is a program that helps improve your health and well-being.
Introduction: Intra venous therapy for infusion of blood products, fluid and electrolytes, parenteral medications, hemodynamic monitoring, and for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) has become an essential feature of modern medical care. However, this is associated with the significant risk of infection of blood stream Material and Methods: Intravenous cannulae with complaint of shooting pain and tenderness associated with cannulae are chosen as subjects of study. Tips of the cannulae were cultured using the semiquantitative method described by Maki. Results: Among them, 32(32%) cannulae were infected, Among the blood samples of these patients cultured, 14(14%) were positive and 86(86% ) blood samples were sterile. Fourteen were Coagulase