Ribosomes are found in both types of cells. Ribosomes make proteins by connecting chains of amino acids together for the cell to use. D. The Golgi apparatus turns simple molecules into larger, more complex ones and packages them in vesicles for storage and transport. This is only found in eukaryotic cells. E. Vacuoles are storage facilities for either nutrients for or waste from the cell.
This process is known is called as Karyokinesis. In animal cells, the cleavage furrow deepens which eventually pinches the cytoplasm into two. In plant cells, the daughter cells develop a new cell wall. The parent cell split in half. This process is known as
Axonemal dynein proteins cause microtubules to move and thus the cilia and flagella move by a beating process. Cilia and flagella have very similar structure so it is very difficult to distinguish them from each other at times. However we can distinguish between them from their movement. Flagella move in a wave like motion where as cilia move in a sling shot motion. When multiple cilia move at the same time in the same direction.
The fertilization may be internal or external. It depends on organism and its environment in which that animal live. In external fertilization many invertebrates simply release their gametes into water in which they live and allow them to fertilize (e.g. sponges and corals), while in some other invertebrates utilize internal fertilization to transfer sperm
Prokaryotic organisms normally have a cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall, and sometimes a capsule. Bacterial cells are most commonly either coccus or bacillus in shape. The cell wall is either Gram positive or Gram negative. When the cell is Gram negative, the cell has an extra layer of lipopolysaccharides. The Gram positive has a thick layer of peptidoglycan.
Proteins are complex macromolecules that are formed by elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Proteins composed of one or more polypeptide chains of amino acids. The main functions of proteins are to structure, support, protect, make movement, catalyst, transport and make hormones in human body. In the structural role, collagen and elastin provide support for connective tissue. Actin and myosin are proteins that involved in muscle contraction and movement.
Protein self-association can be triggered by chemical transformations; it is also sensitive to physical parameters such as temperature and pressure. Moreover, it is strongly affected by changes in the properties of the medium, such as, pH, the electrolyte concentration, and the presence of co solvents or additives (Stenstan et al.
This tissue is responsible for the protection of the body from dust, dirt, bacteria and other organisms that lie outside the body, it may also be changed/modified to glands that produce mucus, hormones, enzymes and etc. , also all epithelial cells are supported by a basement membrane underneath it. - There are 2 different classifications of epithelial tissue, the types of cell (squamous, cuboidal, columnar) and the number of layers (simple- one layer, stratified- two or more layers, pseudo stratified- one layer but it looks like there’s more than one), but there is also one special type of epithelial tissue which is called transitional epithelial tissue. • Connective Tissue - The connective tissue supports and binds other tissues together (such as muscle to bones and etc.). There are less cells in connective tissues compared to epithe¬lial tissues because there are spaces between the cells called the “matrix” which are made out of ground substance (water) + fibers.
INTRODUCTION Protein folding is a process by which a polypeptide chain folds into its native three dimensional structure, a conformation that is biologically functional. It is most often assumed that protein folding and its biophysical and structural properties observed in dilute buffer solutions in vitro also represent the in vivo scenario. However the intracellular environment is highly crowded because of the presence of large amounts of soluble and insoluble biomolecules including proteins, nucleic acids, osmolytes, ribosomes and carbohydrates. [reference] It has been estimated that the concentration of macromolecules in the cytoplasm ranges from 80 to 400 mg/ml [life in crowded world, rivas, 2004].
The autophagosomal membranes separate pathogens from cytosolic resources and promote their lysosomal delivery. Studies provides evidences as to how xenophagy accomplished, by utilizing adaptor protein molecules that act as bridges between ubiquitin- tagged cargoes and the autophagic machinery. In addition, these adaptor molecules may also serve as scaffolds for assembling not only the autophagic machinery to integrate the innate immune response. The linkage between autophagy and bacterial invasion became evident in GFP–LC3-expressing mammalian cells, when GFP–LC3 signals surrounded invading intracellular bacterial infections
2- Compare and contrast these types of eyes: Microvilli VS Cilia : Cilia : is a microscopic hair like structure that are found is almost all mammalian cell. Microvilli: microscopic cellular membrane which increase surface area of the cell, it has couple of functions such as cellular adhesion, absorption and secretion. protostomes VS deuterostomes: Protostomes: it 's a pore that is formed during embryonic developments which becomes the mouth.
2. How does DNA replicate itself? In order to replicate itself, DNA undergoes DNA replication, a process in which the DNA unwinds and splits in two. From that point on, new nucleotides are added to each of the original strands (A to T, C to G) until the result is two identical sequence copies of DNA.
Even though we cannot see cells without a microscope, they are the basic unit of life and they exhibit all of the characteristics of living organisms. They can exist individually, as do bacteria, or they may work together, taking on specialized tasks to create a more complex organism. However, all living organisms share certain characteristics, which are discussed below. Cells are made of cytoplasm.