Many concerns have centered in on the possible links between repeated concussions and chronic traumatic encephalopathy or CPE. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a serious, degenerative brain disease that affects a person’s ability to think. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy involves the progressive brain damage, particularly in the frontal region of the brain, which controls many functions including people’s judgement, emotion, impulsive control, social behavior and their memory. A signature feature of the disease is abnormal deposits of a protein called tau that accumulates around small blood vessels in brain crevices. Researchers believe that multiple blows to the head may dislodge the tau protein from the cell structure and cause it to form in clumps inside nerve cells.
Common causes of this type of hemorrhage are hypertension, trauma, and the use of blood thinners. Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs when an artery within the surface of the brain bursts and spills in the space between the surface of the brain and skull. The leakage is most commonly caused by an aneurysm. A transient ischemic attack is also known as TIA or “mini stroke”.
Cytotoxic edema is most commonly characterized by the swelling of neurons, glia and constriction of extracellular space. Cytotoxic causes of edema include: traumatic brain injury, encephalitis, meningitis, toxic ingestions and hypoxic ischemic brain injury. The final
Other symptoms also include drowsiness, seizures and apnoea. Some infants with non-specific signs of brain injury later display difficulties with learning and educational failure (Blumenthal, 2002). If an infant is held by the thorax and then shaken, it causes a repetitive acceleration deceleration trauma which leads to intracranial bleeding (Jayakumar et al., 2004). Many cases are fatal or lead to seizures and neurological disability including blindness. It has been seen that cerebral palsy, mental retardation or epilepsy may be present in about 60% of the children who are victims of shaken baby syndrome (Jayakumar et al.,
Noonan Syndrome Having a family member or child with an uncommon condition can be pretty extreme. When it comes to these conditions, they are usually some sort of mutation or run in the family 's genetics. Noonan Syndrome is a rare condition that affects an individual 's physical appearance, mental state, and genetic makeup, but varies in each affected person. In 1963, Noonan Syndrome was first described by a heart-specialist, Jacqueline Noonan.
According to the Mayo Clinic’s article, Frontotemporal Dementia, says that it is normally misdiagnosed as a psychiatric problem and it states that this type of dementia normally occurs at a younger age than Alzheimer’s does and it is commonly between the ages of 40 and 45. B. Symptoms i. Many people who have FTD have changes in their behavior, become impulsive, and lose their ability to speak. ii. In the article, Dementia and Its Implications for Public Health, written by the CDC and published in April 2006, FTD can cause a person to become very inappropriate with their language and sexual behavior.
The infant may develop temporary muscle weakness and associated findings (i.e., transient neonatal myasthenia gravis). The passage of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies through the placenta to the unborn child during pregnancy may cause this condition to the infant. Some of the myasthenia gravis is inherited as an autosomal recessive, or more rarely, an autosomal dominant condition is described as congenital myasthenia gravis. The individual that inherits two copies of an abnormal gen for the same trait from each parent, the individual will have recessive genetic disorders. If the individual receives one normal gene and one gene for the disease, the person will be a carrier for the disease but usually will not show symptoms.
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a condition which affects the heart muscle. The left ventricle of the heart becomes enlarged which can result in the inefficiency of blood being pumped around the body. In Lily’s situation, this was a genetic condition however this condition may also be caused by viral infections, auto-immune disease or even pregnancy (British heart foundation, 2017). Development According to Feldman, (2004) children with chronic medical conditions are expected to require longer hospital stays.
Some children may have conditions such as Dyslexia, ADHD, Downs Syndrome or Autism, which will cause their communication to be different. They may find it hard to interpret what an adult is asking them to do or they may not be able to communicate what they want to say in a way for an adult to understand them. Hearing and Physical impairments will also have an effect on communication. Hearing impairments in a child or adult will create a barrier in communication where the listener will have to use a different form of communication such as sign language or using pictures and gestures. Physical impairments would include disabilities such as Cerebral Palsy or Spina Bifida in the child or adult.
The study by Child Abuse and Neglect and the Brain—A Review Authors Danya Glaser First published: January 2000Full publication history DOI: 10.1111/1469-7610.00551, that the shows that injury can cause some terrible affects to the brain which in turn affects the attachment with the child and parent. Whole this damage of the brain can affect the physical ability to have secure attachment, issues relating to the cognitive ad emotions; behaviour of the child also comes into play. A child who has is unaware of the response from the carer giver will have unsecure attempt (reference text
Neuromotor Impairments, under Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), is one of the divisions that fall under the category of orthopedic impairment, others being degenerative diseases and musculoskeletal disorder (Gargiulo, 2015, p. 495). Neuromotor impairments are abnormalities of the central nervous system which includes brain and spinal cord or the ability of descending-nervous-tracts from the brain or spinal cord to innervate the muscles of the body. These impairments are congenital (present at or before birth) and severely impair coordination of limb movements, urinary control and proper alignment of the spinal cord and vertebrae. It is however quite possible that individuals with neuromotor impairments have additional impairments
A lot of the children are born with the disabilities but rarely can occur later on in life. For example a seizure, seizures occur when abnormal signals from the brain change the way the body functions. It also occurs when a large number of the cells send out an electrical charge at the same time. There are three types of seizures, Non-epileptic Seizures, Partial Seizures, and Generalized Seizures. Non-epileptic Seizures occurs with an injury to the head or an illness.
Children under the age of two and older adults who have weak immune systems are at the most risk. Pneumococcal meningitis is harmful and can cause severe brain damage or ca even cause someone to go deaf. Meningococcal meningitis is the second most common form of meningitis and it is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitides. People at risk for this disease include infants under the age of one, people who travel to foreign countries, freshmen in college who live in the dorms and people with suppressed immune systems. Between 10 and 15 percent of the cases are fatal and 10 to 15 percent up end with brain
Pneumocephalus may not cause symptoms and the body may absorb the air over time. However, if intracranial air builds up and cannot be released or absorbed, it can put pressure on your brain (tension pneumocephalus). Tension pneumocephalus is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. CAUSES Neurosurgery is a common cause of pneumocephalus.