The crusades were a religious dispute between Christianity and Islam that took place in order for the Christians to take back their holy land, Jerusalem, from the Muslims. Urban II initiated the crusades at the Council of Clermont through a speech, with an audience of noblemen and clerics. His main goal was to urge “European princes to stabilize Christendom’s borders and then go further to recapture Jerusalem and restore Christian rule to the holy land” (Bentley et al. 422). These expeditions sparked new political, religious, and economic developments for the world. The crusades were a huge accomplishment for the people of Christian faith because new people began to convert. Without the start of the crusades by Pope Urban II, the entire view of the Roman Catholic church would be completely different now. Christianity would not have been a very popular religion, and Europe would not be viewed as a dominant
In the 1500s, the Catholic Church headed by the pope with its central institution located in Rome was very powerful and one of the wealthiest church in Europe. It united most of the people across Europe and had a major political role in every decision making that concerns the state. But, as the church gained more power and wealth, its hierarchy of top officials also became corrupt and greedy. Eventually, people started to get angry and frustrated over its corruption and started a religious rebellion against the church. The conflict among the people and the church began to escalate therefore causing a ripple effect throughout the world. It was time for a new change.
Derived from the French word Crois, and the Spanish word Cruz, the words Cruzada and Croisée developed. Those two words mean “take up your cross”. This phrase, was said by Jesus to his disciples in Matthew 16:24. From those two words came the word Crusade. The Crusades were known as a series of battles launched by Europe against the Islamic religion to take back the holy land of Jerusalem. When the First Crusade was launched, Jerusalem churches were under the Muslim rule. When Pope Urban II was elected, he found himself the head of a reformed movement to win back the holy land of Jerusalem, and relieve churches of the Muslim rule. Emperor Alexius, the emperor of the Byzantine Empire, requested help from Pope Urban because the Muslims were killing his Christian people. Since the Muslims were in command of Jerusalem, the violent acts happening in the Byzantine Empire by the Muslims were happening in Jerusalem as well. The First Crusade, which was the most successful, was launched by Pope Urban II in 1095 when he was newly elected into papacy. Pope Urban II’s main objective in launching the First Crusade was not to take back Jerusalem, but an attempt
Pope Urban II had called for the First Crusade, because he had been told that Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus was needing is help. Pope Urban II called all the Christians to come and help fight for the Holy Land. Pope Urban II stated that the Christians needed to reclaim the land. He saw the faith of the Christendom trampled on and the lack of peace. He saw the many fights, people stealing, people being unjustly kept, and the many evils of the world. The crusades were to capture Jerusalem, to have Christian territories, resolve fighting, and gain territory and political. Fulcher of Chartres was an eyewitness to all of this. Pope Urban II would go on to say that he wants the vile race to disappear from everywhere and for the Lord to protect
The views on Christianity throughout Rome changed immensely from the early years of the empire through the fourth century. For a while, Christians were looked at as a threat to many because of their belief in monotheism. Nero and his followers persecuted and punished the lower class and women who followed Christianity as well as use them as political scapegoats. As time went on, the tolerance for Christianity in Rome grew and Christianity gained acceptance. By the fourth century, Christianity was the official religion in Rome. Christianity in Rome, illegal during the early years of the empire, gained appeal to the women and lower class of Rome eventually gaining favor due to Flavius Theodosius and Constantine’s beliefs and sympathy (Lunn-Rockliffe).
Relationships between Christianity, Islam, and Judaism were worsened, and the Pope lost a great deal of his power during the Crusades. European politics were shifted dramatically from feudalism to large towns and cities with bustling trade. Monarchs ruled the beginnings of modern European countries. People learned about other cultures and expanded their views of the world because of the effects of the Crusades. A large amount of crucial progress was made in medieval Europe as a result of the Crusades, and the battles fought over Jerusalem created ripples that still show in European countries to this
The Crusades was a turning point in history because it depleted the population, made the relationships between religions very strained, and introduced a variety of new ideas and products to the Europeans/Crusaders. The Crusades began after Emperor Alexius requested Pope Urban III to find him a couple of hundred mercenaries who would help him take back the Holy lands after the Muslims had taken it over and had limited their access to their biblical sites. He supported their claim to the crusades by saying that God owns all the land and that it was meant for his children, but since the Muslims stole and inhabited his land, so they must take it back. Pope Urban III gave a speech to all of western christendom, saying, “This royal city, therefore, situated at the center of the world, is now held captive by His enemies, and is in subjection to those who do not know God, to the worship of the heathens. She seeks therefore and desires to be liberated, and does not cease to implore you to come to her aid.”. His speech inspired tens of thousands of people to set out on the crusades, mostly peasants, which was a lot more than Emperor Alexius had expected. From there the Crusades began, continuing all the way to 1204 in the fourth crusade. The first Crusade was the only successful raid of them all, mostly because the Muslims didn't realize that they were attacking until it was too late. But the next three crusades undid all the progress
The Crusades were expeditions done by the Roman Catholic Church in alliance with Middle-Age Kingdoms and Empires. There were a total of nine Crusades during the period of 1095 to 1291, led by Saladin, Richard I "the Lionheart" of England, Pope Urban II, Frederick I the Holy Roman Emperor, etc.
During the early Pax Romana, Christianity, emerged and it spread rapidly in the Roman Empire. The founder of Christianity was Jesus who used parables with moral lessons to communicate his ideas. Jesus emphasized mercy, sympathy for the poor and helpless, morality, forgiveness, and service to others. Christianity eventually became the official religion of Rome because of its unifying force and the fact that it appealed to all classes in society. The humble, poor and oppressed found comfort in his message of love, equality, human dignity, and promise for a better life. It can be seen that Christianity had the most significant changes in Roman society compared to the other religions. Christianity improved the social, cultural and political way
The Great Schism also referred to as The East-West Schism, divided "Chalcedonian" Christianity into Western Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy in 1054. The East-West Schism was the result of an extended period of separation between the two bodies of churches. It was the historic sundering of Eucharistic relations between the see of Rome – now the Roman Catholic Church, and the sees of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem – now the Orthodox Church. It divided medieval Mediterranean Christendom into Eastern and Western branches, which later became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, respectively.
In 1095 on November 27 in Clermont,France, Pope Urban the II called for a Crusade to help the Byzantines and free the city of Jerusalem. The official start date was set as August 15, 1096. This order little did he know would be the cause of a battle that turned into 9 war’s that last for nearly 200 years. This event in history clearly has a outcome that is way more negative than positive.
Chaos: The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious, political, intellectual and cultural Europe, setting in place the structures and beliefs that would disruption that separated Catholic define the continent in the modern and central Europe, like Martin Luther, John Calvin and Henry Vill challenged papal authority and questioned the Church 's ability to define Christian practice. They argued for a religious and political redistribution of power into the hands of Bible- and pamphlet-reading pastors and princes. The disruption triggered wars, persecutions and the so-called Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church 's delayed but forceful response to the Protestants. The main chaos that caused reformation were religious,
The Protestant reformation took place during a time of conflict between the new nation-states of Europe, which was caused by conformity within their areas. As Switzerland’s cantons, or subdivisions began dividing, civil wars began erupting. They were caused by the conflicts between the Catholic and Protestant churches.
The Middle Ages were the era of Reformation. The Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, and the Catholic counter-reformation were all major reform movements that brought about much needed change. However, these three movements strongly disagreed with each other. Why did they disagree? Because they had different perspectives concerning Christianity and the church’s authority.
In the early 1500’s the main religion throughout Europe was Catholicism. As time went on more people started to doubt the religion for numerous reasons. Some of which consisted of corrupt priests, indulgences, or buying a ticket to heaven, punishment for other beliefs, and the church’s interference with the monarch. Because of this, heresies became popular. With disillusion rising a Protestant Reformation began. There were two major leaders that led the Protestant Reformation in Europe. The first was Martin Luther who wrote “95 Theses”, which were new religious beliefs, and nailed them to the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church. Eventually, he was outlawed and found refuge with Saxon princes, but his ideas continued to spread throughout Germany