The primary causes of the schism were disputes over papal authority, where the Roman pope claimed he held authority over the four eastern patriarchs, whereas the four Eastern patriarchs claimed that the primacy of the Patriarch of Rome was only honorary, therefore only having authority over the Western churches (Great Schism, 2008). The recognized break came when the Patriarch of Constantinople was Michael Cerularius, and St. Leo was the Pope in Rome. In the year 1053, Cerularius dispersed a treatise condemning in strong terms the practices of the Western church. He said the fact that Catholics did not allow their clergy to marry was contrary to scripture and tradition (The Great Schism, 2003). The other crucial cause was the Pope’s introduction of the filioque clause into the Nicene Creed.
“Were the Crusades successful in achieving their aim of reclaiming Jerusalem and maintaining the Christian presence in the Middle East (Anatolia) and the Crusader States, and how are the Crusades relevant/similar to recent events taking place in the Middle East such as America’s war on Terror and Jihadism.” The Crusades were a series of holy wars declared by the officials of the Catholic Church on the Muslim expansion and Seljuk Turks who had taken over the holy lands. Crusaders were sent off to Israel to reclaim these lands and strengthen the Christian presence in Anatolia however they were not successful in maintaining their holds and crusades following the first crusades can be considered failures. The First crusade was declared by Pope
The crusades are the medieval military expeditions that pope Urban || issued to the European to stop fighting against each other and reclaim Jerusalem or the 'holy land" from the Muslims. Jerusalem was important as the saviour Jesus Christ was born there. The crusade started in the late 1000s to the 1500s. Pope Urban || convinced people to join the crusade with the promises of having their sins forgiven. Others joined for hopes of power, territory and riches.
The crusades were a religious dispute between Christianity and Islam that took place in order for the Christians to take back their holy land, Jerusalem, from the Muslims. Urban II initiated the crusades at the Council of Clermont through a speech, with an audience of noblemen and clerics. His main goal was to urge “European princes to stabilize Christendom’s borders and then go further to recapture Jerusalem and restore Christian rule to the holy land” (Bentley et al. 422). These expeditions sparked new political, religious, and economic developments for the world. The crusades were a huge accomplishment for the people of Christian faith because new people began to convert.
I believe The Reformation influenced many events in the church, politics, race and gender. First, the Reformation changed the church. The movement did start in the walls of the Catholic Church. A man named Martin Luther challenged the authority of the church.
The Christian View vs. The Muslim View of the Crusades The crusades were a set of different military actions that were sanctioned by the Catholic Church and the papacy. Their intention was to recapture Holy Lands they believed were rightfully theirs from the Muslim people that had invaded it. As any attack on a large group of people would do, every major group was affected. The Christians had their own reasons and beliefs for going on these Crusades.
Religion had a role in every part of the region whether it be big or small. Another time when religion had impacted a colony or country was when Henry VIII had impacted Europe by creating an unstable connection between the church. He cut his connection with the church in order to divorce his wife Catherine. Now at this point in time whoever was the ruler of England would be able to change the main religion. This caused rebellions between religions on which is more important and which should be the main religion of England.
The Protestant Reformation was a time period of upheaval, conflict, and most importantly change and religious change being one the most significant changes. The Reformation had a huge impact on religion and the era shaped the understanding of Heaven and Hell. Martin Luther and John Calvin were main contributors to developing and creating religious ideals during this time. They were influential because Luther and Calvin both opposed the religious the traditional views of the time. The Catholic Church was being challenged for the first time during this time and altering the beliefs of people.
Theses by Martin Luther in 1517. Martin Luther Martin Luther was a professor of theology, composer priest and a monk. He used to oppose many teachings and sayings of the Roman Catholic Church. His “95 Theses,” which was based on two central beliefs that the Bible is the central religious authority and that humans may reach salvation only by their faith and not by their deeds was to spark the Protestant Reformation. Although these ideas had been presented before, Martin Luther codified them at a moment in history ripe for religious reformation.
The Reformation in the Renaissance At the beginning of the Renaissance, the “time” had been going backwards. The people seemed to forget the older way of life. Instead of having stone houses and castles, they went back to thatched roof huts. Even though people neglected things, they also discovered new facts like the sun was actually at the center of the universe instead of the earth.
Throughout the Middle Ages, religion was a strong, pervasive force in society. Most individuals were more concerned with God and the possibility of the afterlife than they were with current human affairs, says Encylopedia Britannica. By the time the Renaissance occurred, this social attitude was beginning to change. Religion was still practiced, but people began to be more focused on secular or humanist values, rather than spirituality, at this
Empire Building in the Spanish and Russian Empires Within the period 1450-1800, the Spanish and Russian Empires were going through expansion and empire building. They were similar in that during this time they were both ruled under a centralized monarchy, but different in their methods of expansion and labor forces. The Spanish and Russian Empires from 1450-1800 were both ruled under a centralized monarchy that made the decisions on expansion and colonization.
The Reformation was a religious revolution in the 16th century, which changed Catholic teaching, and created Protestant churches. These ideals (such as questioning authority and religion) have created modifications that are still affecting and altering our society today. Since the establishment of The Roman Catholic Church, the Church had filled the needs of stability and authority for the masses. Although this hierarchal institution left little room for individuals to question the rules forced upon them.