Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. To reach a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, an individual or group must be able to identify and to realize aspirations, to satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment. In the past, most individuals and societies viewed good health, or wellness, as the opposite or absence of disease. This simple attitude ignores states of health between disease and good health. Health is a multidimensional concept and must be viewed from a broader perspective in assessment of the client 's state of health is an important aspect of nursing.
According to Designing Health Communication Strategy from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health/Center for Communication Programs, begin with the use of analysis of the situation to observe, gather, organize, and assess relevant factors. These factors include the nature and extent of the problem, audience characteristics, available resources, and the communication environment. Through this data, factors can easily be identified and can be of great help to a stronger communication strategic plan for a health campaign. It is always best to look beyond the factual information at hand and look at the health problem, if there is, in a broader environmental context. There is the need to compare the shared vision with your understanding of the present situation, and there is a need to understand why there is a difference between the two.
That is improving access to quality health care for all, to achieve social solidarity and equity by pooling funds, to strengthen the public health care sector and to efficiently mobilize and control financial resources. There are seven principles to the NHI: access, effectiveness, appropriateness, equity, affordability, efficiency and social solidarity. Social solidarity refers to the creation of financial risk protection for the entire population that ensures support between the rich and poor, healthy and sick. This system allows the spreading of health costs over one’s lifecycle so that one can pay contributions when young and healthy and use them later in life in an event of illness/injury. Unfortunately there are challenges that restrict the country from moving towards this system.
INTRODUCTION: The key question in developing human resources for health continues to be how to produce, deploy and retain an appropriately trained health workforce of the appropriate skill mix who can deliver the appropriate, affordable and equitable packages of health services designed by ministries of health as the basis of their health service delivery. The problems related to this are common to all countries. In post-conflict situations, the loss or displacement of experienced personnel, the destruction or degradation of training systems, and the complexity of the context within which reconstruction takes place exacerbates the problems (Macrae, 1995; Smith, 2001, 2002). The strategies to restructure a workforce largely depend on: the
These functions can be applied at all levels of the organization according to their needs and may vary by program. These are; • Providing leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships where joint action is needed; • Shaping the research agenda and stimulating the generation, translation and dissemination of valuable knowledge; • setting norms and standards and promoting and monitoring their implementation; • Articulating ethical and evidence-based policy options; • Providing technical support, catalyzing change, and building sustainable institutional capacity • Monitoring the health situation and addressing health trends 1. Providing Leadership and Partnerships on Global
Usually, epidemiological studies focus on a population selected from a specific area or country. Based on this, sub-groups may be defined for the selected population like age, ethnicity or sex. Epidemiology can be considered as one of the tools for improving population health; for instance, finding out the etiology (cause) of communicable diseases. It is also used to ascertain the disease burden in populations so that health authorities can carry out necessary preventive measures (Bonita et al.,
The NHI plans to re-engineer the health system to improve the accessibility and quality of health care services for all citizens in addition to providing financial risk protection against health related cost which can be ruinous to the individual. (Baleta, 2012: 1185 & Matsoso, & Fryatt, 2013: 156). This will ensure that health care services are accessible to all based on their need and not on their capability to pay. (Keeton, 2010: 804). Furthermore there is focused on health promotion and prevention at a household and community level.
The intrapersonal factors are the individual characteristics that influence the behavior such as attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and personality traits while interpersonal are those influence that emanate from primary groups such family, friends and peers. In the modern health promotion approach, it is more than providing information to an individual about healthy practices but includes deliberate determinations to change organizational or institutional behaviour as well as physical and social environment of targeted communities. It is also about development and advocating for policies that support public health issue. The ecological level also helped the programme to identify suitable intervention points for malaria as a public health issue. In this case, the malaria elimination programme has put into consideration all the socio-ecological levels in the design of the programme.
Community health assessment (CHA) is a systematic examination of the health status indicators of a specific population that is used to determine key issues and assets in a community. The main objective of community health assessment is to establish plans to address the community’s health needs and issues. Variation of tools and processes, community engagement and shared participation are utilized to conduct a community health assessment. According to NACCHO (n.d.b), a CHA can be used to answer the following questions for a community: “What are the health problems in a community? Why do health issues exist in a community?
Social marketing and advocacy Use the Health Promotion Activity to influence attitudes and encourage social change in the community using modern and traditional campaigns and marketing tools and such as advertising campaign and social media. Research and evaluation Evaluate how both mentors and users have performed during the Health Promotion Activity and whether those changes have impacted the users health. Be aware of changes that need to be made in order to achieve any outcomes that have not been met (THCU, 2001) According to The Ottawa Charter, to achieve an effective health promotion activity you must ensure that Personal skills have been developed Has the Health Promotion Activity supported the development of Personal Skills such as Health Education and Life skills to ensure the user can achieve a healthier lifestyle Supportive environments have been