The English took whatever they wanted from the Native Americans and the land and made a profit off of it. Cronon explains a lumbering technique called griddling that the Colonists used on the trees, causing faster deforestation. The Europeans demolished large strips of forest for crops and pastures. Eventually the damage lead to more unpredictable weather, and the drying or flooding of rivers. Swamps developed in what were once dry areas, promoting disease in those parts of New England.
William Cronon’s Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England Interprets and analyzes the changing conditions in New England’s wildlife communities such as plant and animal that happened to shift from Native American dominance to European dominance. Cronon explains that the transition from Indian to European dominance in New England entailed important changes, commonly known to historians, on how these people organized their lives, but it also involves basic reorganizations, less well known to historians, in the region’s plant and animal communities (Cronon, xv). As the distant world and occupants of Europe were bit by bit introduced to North America’s ecosystem, the limits between the two were obscured. Cronon utilizes an assortment of proof to clarify the circumstances that prompted the dramatic ecological consequences following European contact with New England such as deforestation and different understandings that result in confusion. For the newly arriving European settlers, the landscape held symbolic meaning and value to both environmental and economic.
The drastic drop in population, created a dramatically increase in wages, a fall in food supplies, change in medicine, and an undetermined mindset of religion. As food prices began to drop, and the need for food supplies decreased, landowners where finding it more and more difficult to make ends meets. These effects led to an end in the once great manorial system of Europe, and adapted peasants from farmers to the urban life. Doctors treating the disease soon became infected, and killed off most physicians treating this disease. This caused an awakening in the medical field, as physicians where viewed as a failure.
Then, when World War I ended, the demand for wheat and other crops fell as did the prices. To compensate for this loss, farmers dug up more land and planted more crops which only further hurt the soil. Another cause of the Dust Bowl was farm animals. Livestock was a good source of meat and dairy products but they also consumed a lot of grass which was already being torn up. When the grass was eaten and the soil wasn’t healthy enough to support plants, many of the animals died.
In the Journal article The Life and Times of Pancho Villa we can see how even though they both wanted land reform they were completely different. First of all the way of fighting was completely different he wasn't much of a guerilla style fighter rather an all cavalry army who had men trained to use weapons. Land reform was important to Pancho Villa the main reason for it wasn't to give it back to the campesinos like Emiliano Zapata but the economy behind it was the reason driving this land reform. Francisco Villa was more of a politician so his reasons were more political and economical. Instead of taking the land monopolized by the hacendados to give back to the campesinos, he took the land to create profit for high to maintain his revolutionary efforts.
Throughout the British rule over India, the Indians went through multiple movements to attempt to regain their independence from the invasive country. Through the British control, Indians became unequal, separated, and extremely poor. Three of the most effective and/or important movements that occur include The Massacre at the Golden Temple, The Homespun Movement, and The Salt March. Each of these events had a strong effect and contribution in the national movements in India. The movements that had been initiated by the Indians were peaceful and were only used just to gain back their equal rights in their own country.
Not to mention after Columbus came to America this positive mindset changed Europeans infected the natives and took their land. Furthermore the thought process of European settlers is the same as Americans to take what they wish despite the consequences. With this in mind humans using nature as an endless bank account is the debt that the future generations will be forced to pay. Ea uses a statement stating that humans cannot consume cash, which is true human bodies require nutrients that money cannot provide. For the great grandchildren of tomorrow communities must act today to preserve the little nature is left on the Earth.
My goal in this paper is to discuss both the good and the bad effects that came of the Europeans exploring and colonizing the America’s. The cultural effects that the Europeans had on Native American’s through their exploration as well as colonization were obviously great, however, it is very hard to make a generalization about this because there were many tribes in the America’s, each differently affected. In the 1570’s,
Key Words:Ethnic culture, Eco-space,Postcolonialism, Ego-centrism, Celtic tradition, Gaia. Introduction Colonial attitude of limitless progress at the expense of nature had redefined the cultural as well as the linguistic paradigms of Ireland for many centuries. The ecological attitudes of Ireland had undergone radical changes as a result of European invasion and settlement. Seamus Heaney tries to create an eco-space in his poetry firmly grounding his beliefs and attitude in the native ethnic culture Ireland. It seems that the cultural displacements as a result of the colonization have resulted in modifying his ecological sensibilities.
Although hunting has cut populations in certain areas, it is the loss of vast areas of their unique habitat that has the biggest threat to the orangutans population. Increased levels of human activity has led to the extinction of the orangutan in numerous areas. The rare, tropical timbers and the vast areas of ancient forest and peat-swamps are cut down make way for the increasing number of palm oil plantations. Huge tracts of forest have been cleared throughout their range and the