Institutional discrimination is when laws favor a dominant group while minority groups are not favored, and this thought process is embedded into the norms of society. The pattern that we see in the history of Native American and African Americans is that white Americans always believed that they were the dominant race and all laws that were created, were made to favor only themselves. One idea that white Americans shared was that both ethnic groups previously mentioned were inferior and that these groups were not capable of coexisting with them. These thoughts were embedded into society early on and were the main justification for both slavery and Indian removal.
Racism is the belief or idea of superiority of one race over another, often resulting in discrimination and/or prejudice towards people of the race. The ideology underlying racist practices often includes the idea that humans can be divided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior. Since the late 20th century the notion of biological race has been recognized as a cultural invention, entirely without scientific basis. Structural Racism in the U.S. is the normalization of an array of dynamics – historical, cultural, institutional and interpersonal – that routinely advantage whites while producing cumulative and chronic adverse outcomes for people of color. It is a system of hierarchy and inequity, primarily characterized by white supremacy – the preferential treatment, privilege and power for white people at the expense of Black, Latino, Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, Arab and other racially oppressed people.
While the slave system of the United States used the “One drop rule” to decide if someone was black, it cannot help but to undermine the concept of whiteness and the idea that white blood is superior. Even though Warwick is successfully performing the role of a white man, there is always the threat overhead that someone will find out that his blood is not “pure.” His sister and mother both live in an area that know them and their background, which is why, despite their “superior” blood, the family is “under the shadow of some cloud which . . . shut them out from the better society of the town” (21). This “shadow” is their known black lineage. No amount of performance in the town that knows that they are not “pure” whites will allow them to move as whites in white
Segregation plays a major role in racism. In the 30s, segregation was supported by the legal system. There were separate signs designating where whites and blacks could go. People challenged the laws saying it contradicted the 14th amendment that everyone was equal.
She overcame exclusion, rejection and discrimination in her own family, to acquire prestige and recognition with publishers and universities—the small aside of professional and financial accomplishments in the essay. Most of all, she came to accept herself and erase the pervasive gender polarization in her family to finally receive acceptance from her
This idea of a white America surely put an emphasis on this notion of living up to the white standards that took blacks away from their own culture and tradition as they tried to assimilate to the American ways. This idea of assimilation sent an indirect message to other minorities that they may never fit the white standards and that no matter how much they tried, they wouldn't be considered American if they didn't have white skin. The Harlem Renaissance provided a platform for many African Americans to communicate their perspective of white oppression through various forms of art. In these works of art, they portray themselves to be “this debt [they] pay to human guile,” alluding to the false face that hid behind their masks (Source H).
The elaborate racial politics of Ernest J. Gaines’s book, A Lesson Before Dying give insight and reason as to why certain people of different ethnicities are treated as such. The racial politics in A Lesson Before Dying are more intricate with people of mixed race factored in. The hatred for African Americans by white people runs very deep in this novel, but people of mixed race complicate this system because those of mixed race are both face racial prejudice while maintaining a superior attitude towards African Americans. White people are politically, economically, and socially privileged and continue to believe that they have racial superiority in this novel.
He is an Asian American who talks about how racial profiling is disadvantaging people in general and how society is excluding the Asian society who were seen as outsiders. He’s not just referring to Asian American he mentioned to consider all races in this world, because that’s what makes this world so special an unique; the different types of character from all over the world. With his essay he points out to stop the stereotype thinking and to look behind the cliché. Yuri Kochiyama shows in her essay “Then Came The War” how she experienced racism and prejudice against the Japanese community. The different treatment from everyone else was only based on the individual’s race. .
Well, Conflict Theorist indicate that prejudice can occur anywhere in society. For example, the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) can be seen as prejudice in society, they believed that the white race was supreme and above all races and their entirety. However Conflict Theorists' would interpret Jim Crow Laws as an example of racial discrimination, which also once again put African-Americans at the bottom of the totem-pole enacted in the 1880s in America .The Ku Klux Klan were prejudice to certain races (Jews, Blacks, etc.), as they were prejudice to people who were homosexuals also. On the other hand, "Uncle Tom's Cain" by Harriet Beecher Stowe exhibits the prejudice in the South during the era of slavery, she illustrates slavery in-depth.
According to W. I. Thomas’ idea of “The Definition of the Situation” what people believe to be real, is real in its consequences. If people believe in society because they have a different skin color and should be treated differently because of their physical characteristics/stereotype of their “race” is real for those people and for others who refuse to accept that it’s not real. In the “A Class Divided “video a third grade class was segregated into to a belief of two races; a race of blue eyed third graders and a race of brown eyed third graders. When the blue eyed third graders were told from their teacher; an alterative figure that they were superior than their brown eyed classmates and
Lynch stated, “Shave off the brute 's mental history and create a multiplicity of phenomena of illusions, so that each illusion will twirl in its own orbit...”. He worried that if African Americans went back to their roots and discovered where they came from they would begin to see the evils that the whites put upon them. For very few this has been the case. They’ve discovered their African roots and cultivate them in their lives daily. However, the majority still fail to realize the importance of their true culture.
I agree with Dorothy Nyswander that an open society is made up of freeman, a place where justice is the same for everyone, and teach people to question and seek answer. I believe that the open society is where people have equal access and opportunity to education, healthcare, income, employment, and housing. Also, the society where people can speak up and voice their ideas and opinions without prohibition. In the modern society of today, many people judge others by their physical appearance at the first sight. We should practice not to judge people before we get to know them on a deep level.