The transmitted wave/light will experience refraction at the boundary between media. As we observe the diagram on the right, the individual wavefronts will bend as it cross the boundary. Once the wavefront cross the boundary, it travels in a straight line, hence why refraction is known as a boundary behaviour. The diagram shows a ray drawn perpendicular to the wavefronts which represents the direction which light travels. We can see that the rays travel in a straight line inside of the two media, and bends at the boundary.
This occurs because the angle at which the rays hit the boundary (called the angle of incidence) determines the angle at which the rays will refract (called the angle of refraction). Light rays are measured from the normal, not from the medium boundary. Snell’s law shows a mathematical relationship between the light’s angles of incidence and refraction, and the refractive indices of the media it travels through: n1sinθ1=n2sinθ2 Where: θ1=angle of incidence θ2=angle of refraction n1=index of refraction of first medium
In this experiment, Young allowed a ray of light to pass through a pinhole and strike a card. He hypothesised that if light contained particles or simple straight-line rays, the light not blocked by the card would pass through the slits and travel in a straight line and form two bright spots on the screen. But instead a pattern of light and dark strips formed. Young explained this pattern by comparing it to a water wave with crests and troughs. This then lead to the conclusion that light is a wave because as the light went through the slits and onto the screen, the light beams interfered with each other as there were dark and light beams on the page, meaning that where the crests met, the light was bright and where a crest and trough met the light was darker as crests and troughs cancel each other out.
Slowly turn the coarse adjustment so that the objective lens goes up (away from the slide). Continue until the image comes into focus. Use the fine adjustment, if available, for fine focusing. 7. Move the microscope slide around so that the image is in the center of the field of view and readjust the mirror, illuminator or diaphragm for the clearest image.
The plano-convex lens is replaced with another glass plate and a section of optical fibre was placed between them at one end. Light falling normally on the plates will be reflected back out with a phase difference. Figure 3: Apparatus set up for finding the thickness of an optical fibre, showing the optical fibre between the two glass plates This is due to the fact that some of the coherent light waves were reflected from the top plate and others from the bottom, this path difference resulted in the interference of these waves with one another. This caused an interference pattern similar to the below image: Figure 4: Image similar to the observed interference pattern.  This pattern is also linked to Equations 1&2 as stated previously.
The factor involved in this process is called the law of reflection. Because this law has only been applied to rays in the real world, i.e. rays of light, it is defined using rays and mirrors. However, this experiment requires the replacement of the mirror and rays of light, with a shield and target. “The law of reflection states that the incident [shield], the reflected [shield], and the normal to the [target]… lie in the same plane.
The different amount energies released results in different color. This reason is the same reason that different elements have different line spectra. The quantum theory says that a certain amount of energy has be released or absorbed and Bohr 's said the same but with restrictions. The quantum theory would explain the vast differences in energy in color. The reason atoms need heat is because heat gives the atoms energy which causes them to move to an excited and then back to ground state.
It is also known as birefringent (the refractive indexes seen by horizontally and vertically polarised light are different). Slowing one of the linear components of the beam, oriented plate will convert linearly polarised light into circularly polarised light. A beam (left- or right-CPL) will produced . The basis of circular dichroism is the difference in the absorbance of left- and right-CPL. A molecule that absorbs LCP and RCP differently is considered as optically active or chiral molecule.
Introduction: A wave is a disturbance in the medium that transfers energy from one place to another, there are two types of waves; longitudinal waves and transverse waves. Longitudinal waves ' are waves that vibrate or travel in the direction of propagation; back and forth. Transverse waves ' are waves where the medium oscillates at right angles to the direction of the propagation; up and down. Sound waves are categorised as longitudinal waves as they produce oscillations, along with having compressions and rarefactions. The oscillations of the wave cause the medium surrounding it to oscillate along with it, allowing the sound to travel around the area.
The last two muscles are the superior oblique and the inferior oblique. The superior travels through the trochlea and then attaches to the top of the eye, it rotates the eye inward around the long axis of the eye and also has the ability to move the eye downward. The inferior begins in the front orbit by the nose and travels outward/backward before attaching to the bottom part of the eyeball. This muscle does what the one listed above and has the ability to move the eyeball outward in a front to back motion but can also move the eyeball upward (AAPOS). If there is any imbalance in these intricate muscles this is when we see the most common type of amblyopia arise.