Thus, to be high in one it is necessary to be low on the other. Jung and the authors of Myers-Briggs provide a different perspective and suggest that everyone has both and extroverted side and an introverted side, with one being more dominant than the other. Rather than focusing on interpersonal behavior, however, Jung defined introversion as an “attitude-type characterized by orientation in life through subjective psychic contents” and extraversion as “an attitude type characterized by concentration of interest on the external object” (Jung, 1995). In any case, people fluctuate in their behavior all the time, and even extreme introverts and extraverts do not
The Id, the Ego, and the Superego in The Crucible Sigmund Freud developed the theory that the human personality is divided into three parts. The id, the ego, and the superego. Although these are not physical parts of the human body, Freud believed each part to be relevant in each individual's life. He claimed that each role consciously works together to create a person's behavior. To begin, the id is considered to be the more selfish instinct that lies within us.
Allport believed that the set of labels that describe a particular person reflects that person’s central traits (those that are usually obvious to others and that organize and control behavior in many different situations). He also believed that people possess secondary traits (those that are more specific to certain situations and control far less behavior). Allport’s research helped to lay the foundation for modern research on personality traits. His focus on the uniqueness of each personality made it difficult to draw conclusions about the structure of personality in general (Bernstein,
In Freud’s mind, he believed that a sexual pleasure was met at each stage. Furthermore, Freud’s views on personality were popular, but several theorists had slightly different views. Instead of sex being the heart of human existence, Karen Horney believed that security was the motive for human existence. Next was Carl Jung, he went off of Freud’s viewpoint of unconsciousness, but he believed that Freud did not proceed deep enough to find all the facts. The last theorist that was mentioned was Alfred Adler.
Murfin compares Freud’s levels of the mind, based around structure or purpose, to an iceberg. It consists of three parts - the id, the ego and the superego. “The id, the part of the iceberg completely submerged in the unconscious, is driven by one’s libido and consists of the inherited components of one’s personality, including one’s sexual instinct. The second part of the iceberg, the ego, found in both the unconscious and conscious mind, can gain purpose from fulfilling the desires of the id. However, the ego–because it wavers between the unconscious and conscious only fulfills the desires of the id in ways that are socially acceptable.
The two personality types In trying to understand what makes a person behave, think, and react in a certain manner, psychologists teased out the science of a personality type. From their extensive research, they found various personality types in people. However, the two most essential personality types visibly in manifestation in human beings are extroverted and introverted personality types (Pappas, 2013). These personality types are the foundation of humans’ interactions with the physical and abstract environment. The first personality type is the extroverted personality type and can be described as a person who largely receives energy from the outward or externally.
It is one of Freud’s most remarkable contribution and is the essential to interpret his perspective of the behaviour and the issues of personality. The unconscious is made up of those impulses, ideas, beliefs, rationale, and events that are kept out of our realization as a defence against anxiety. Freud believed that majority human conduct is influenced by external forces. The things we do in everyday life is usually formed by these unconscious purpose and needs. The aim of psychoanalysis here is to make the unconscious conscious .The concept of the unconscious has deep significance for analytic group therapy.
Those mechanisms are functions carried out by the ego. They are a strategic effort by the ego to deal with socially unacceptable impulses of the id. According to S. Freud’s definition, reaction formation is when an individual feels an unacceptable impulse, however only express the opposite. In the article the authors describe reaction formation exactly as Freud did. Overall, there has been plenty of studies to show whether this defense mechanism is still valid
Alongside extroversion-introversion there are other distinct indices. The MBTI includes Carl Jung’s theory of perception and judgement in which states that people are different when it comes to perceiving and judging but there is an underlying link or similarity. The scales or indices include Extroversion- Introversion (E-I) which measures whether a person is extroverted or introverted, Sensing-Intuiting (S-I) which echoes a person’s preferred way of perceiving, Thinking-Feeling (T-F) which echoes a person’s preference of two opposite means of judging, and lastly Judgement-Perception (J-P) which reflects a person’s method of dealing with the extroverted side or the external realm (Center for Applications of Psychological Type,
Carl Jung- extroversion and introversion Carl Jung is one of the theorists that assisted in the launch of trait approaches. Carl assisted by the implementation of the terms extroversion and introversion in the theory of personality. Extroversion according to Jung means that individuals are orientated toward things outside oneself and introversion means that an individual‘s