Early adulthood is a time when young adults struggle with accepting or rejecting their ancestral roots as they attempt to develop a positive sense of self. Nigerian-American adults, in particular, struggle with the integration of immensely different elements of Eastern and Western cultures while living in the United States. Despite the difficulties in cultural integration among Nigerian-American adults, few studies have been conducted about their bicultural ethnic identity development. Grounded in Phinney’s stages of ethnic identity development and Tajfel and Turner’s social identity theory, this study attempted to delineate the demographic and social factors that are correlated with development of a positive bicultural ethnic identity. Contrary to predictions, Nigerian-Americans with strong social support systems were more entrenched in their Nigerian identity.
Citizenship is decisive in determining people’s belonging and claim of rights to tangible and intangible resources. Citizenship links the people to the agency of the state; it is not an end in itself. It provides the political, social, economic and environmental spaces for competition among different people in any political community. In Nigeria, these competitive spaces have rendered citizenship increasingly contested in contemporary times, defining some people as citizens and some others as settlers. The contested nature of citizenship in Nigeria is informed by indigeneity as occupying the centre stage of making claims to citizenship of Nigeria.
According to Afigbo (1966) & Uchendu (1965) the British Colonial Administration did not understand the political systems of the Igbos unlike those in the Northern and western parts of Nigeria where dictatorial rulership were in the hands of a few -as a result, these parts of Nigeria had powerful chiefs-; the British colonial administration "(...) naively concluded that the Igbo were living in "ordered anarchy"(Uchendu 1965, p.46). Therefore, the British colonial administration appointed people and called them chiefs. Afigbo (1966) & Nwabueze (1963) (cited by Uchendu 1965) were of the opinion that those who were handpicked as Warrant chief were not in earnest credible men who were indigenous rulers –though in some case credible men emerged. Nwabueze (1963) (cited by Uchendu 1965, p.47) argued that "the people who were appointed warrant chiefs were "those who impressed the District Commissioner with their courage to come forward and meet the Europeans. The traditional rulers seldom passed this test, and so were, for the most part, left out".
This happened because both economic and military interests were too much at stake in the Straits Settlements and therefore only direct rule could ensure the British interest in the region. Therefore, Malaya was geographically ‘hybrid’ in its colonial practices as different regions called for different colonial strategies and can as such, constitute an interesting study case of both
There are problems with the president-parliamentary/premier-presidential distinction. Most notably, while the within-category variation is reduced relative to semi-presidentialism, there is still variation in political practice within both president-parliamentarism and premier-presidentialism. For example, the president-parliamentary category includes Austria and Iceland, both of which have figurehead presidents. Indeed, Samuels and Shugart (2010) excluded Austria from their empirical analysis, precisely because the gap between constitutional form and actual political practice was so great. What is more, even though the list of premier-presidential countries includes classic semi-presidential cases, such as France and Romania, it also includes
The American Southern dialect is unique in terms of grammar usage, as many rules have no equivalent among other regional English dialects. Again, these features are attributed to those who originally settled in the area, but the preservation of such rules can be credited to cultural consciousness. The Civil War is thought to intensify some characteristics of southern language, as confederate states took pride in their differences from the North. Awareness of language is believed to result in the dramatization of many features, as well as a lack of dialect leveling between southern speakers and the rest of the
Cornell (2004) pointed out that autonomy and self –determination is the frequent goal of ethnic mobilizations (p. 245). In a cultural perspective, Guibernau (2006) argues that ethnic group demand self-rule in order to ‘to foster its distinct identity’ (p. 72-73). It may seem that such conflicts are common in multiethnic society where the existence of cleavages makes the formation of homogenous society very difficult. Furthermore, the establishment of a ‘national identity’ inevitably favor a certain faction of society that might cause uproar from other minority groups. We can therefore argue that “what matters is whether there is the perception of discrimination” (Cornell, 2004, p.
(Lim)The rationale of the new federalism is to empower the national government so that they can balance against the influence of the states whereby the power held by both levels of government are equal. Prior to the drafting of the constitution and the federalism structure, according to the articles of confederation, States would remain sovereign and most of the powers lie with the states. The articles of confederation created a loose union of states as a result. Since Delegates to Congress were appointed by State legislatures, the power still remains with the state legislatures as they have the ability to recall back the delegates. There were few limitations placed on State authority and the national government lacked key powers such as taxation, making them subordinate to the state legislatures.
National image dwells in the psychological realm, but is nevertheless a vital component of national power along with other more tangible components such as industrial or military capability (Ogwu: 2005). While Nigeria has consistently projected a “leadership” image through its Afro-centrist foreign policy, the country has been more apt, especially in recent times, to be perceived as “a nation of scammers’ because of its global image and reputation for corruption thus further underscoring Rosenau’s linkage theory (Jega:
There is a vital issue between ethnicity and religion in Nigeria, for instance the Hausa/Fulani and kanuri are predominantly Muslim while the Igbo and southern minorities predominantly Christians and Yoruba and northern minority have an almost equal number of adherents of both religions (Langer and Ukiwo, 2007). Religion is actually classified among the most visible manifestations of culture, its influence is view in the angles of dressing, ritual, what’s forbidden or not, greetings, etc. Schermerhorn J. et al (1995:37) adds that codes of ethics and moral behavour tend to have manifested from religious beliefs and the influence of religion on economic issues can be significant too, for example, the proposal of the Islamic Bank in Nigeria wishes to downplay interests on loans and other financial facilities in line with the Islamic doctrines. The salient role play by religion in lives of people makes it a crucial issue in curtailing diversity as every employees may likely react to a sort of circumstance on the basis of his/her religious