Following data analysis, the researcher could restate their research question, thereafter present findings and conclusions. A sound methodology requires not only a summary of the findings, but acknowledgement of any weaknesses in the study. According to Yin (2003b) to achieve construct validity, the case study researcher will make use of multiple sources, internal validity; use logic models and do explanation building and for external validity, the use of theory. He adds that reliability will depend on the ability to develop a database. The reliability can be tested by finding out such things about the said
Because theories are constructed in order to explain and predict and master phenomena. So, in many instances, theories are constructed as models of reality. In a research, a conceptual framework is used to outline the possible courses of action to an idea, it is an analytical tool with several variations and contexts. In developing this, you need to first select the concepts, then identify the interrelationships of each concepts, formulate the definition, and formulate the theoretical rationale. (www.southeaster.edu retrieved 2003 September).
how and why the exploration was composed, led and examined, and how this prompted specific conclusions. Thus methodological reflexivity may involve considering these sorts of issues, for example, ‘in what way the examination ought to be outlined or directed with a specific end goal to give a persuading record’; ‘is there any another possible interpretation or rebuttal of the narrative’; ‘what role does analysts play in delivering results’; ‘what sorts of selections were made during research process and the reasons for these
This includes identifying the source of data; types of data needed for the investigation, answering the proposed questions and, also help the researcher interpreting the findings of the research. The second point is focused on having insights into the research paradigm which helps the researcher to have the foreknowledge of possible research limitations pertaining to the research methodology employed. The third proposed importance of research philosophies by Easterby-Smith et al (1997, 2012), is having knowledge of the best research paradigm creates room for innovative and creative thinking in selecting and adapting methods that the researcher has no idea about.
Once, the research problem is clearly identified, further exploration is done through exploratory research. Through this one can get an idea of what are the questions to be answered in order to solve the problem. This process takes evaluation of current studies, previous studies by experts and analyzing the situation. After this process, the objectives of research are determined. These act as a guideline for various research process and should be very precise.
A deductive approach is concerned with “developing a hypothesis (or hypotheses) based on existing theory, and then designing a research strategy to test the hypothesis” . A deductive approach method was applied to this research for being the most appropriate, it involves the development of a conceptual and theoretical structure prior to its testing through experiment and observation. The process involves starting out with a theory. Deductive line of reasoning employs the type of logic that goes from general statement to a specific conclusion. Usually the conclusion follows as a specific aspect of the founding arguments.
The focus of the studies under this approach moves from particular aspects to the generalisations or broader theories. Different methods are used in the inductive approach, which are experiments, interviews, survey, and others in order to gather information. Under this approach, the previous information is researched and evaluate from the perspective of the research aim and objectives. Furthermore, this information is supported by the data gathered from survey, interview or another approach. For this considered study, inductive approach is focused because it is using research question to narrow down the scope of the study and focuses on both general and particular perspective (Goddard & Melville,
Anny, the inductive approach is appropriate for investigate the research topic. Firstly, it makes more sense to ask the questions that directly linking to the research objective, and then analyzing the data towards problem solving. For instance, in order to find out whether lacking of the knowledge and/or awareness of forecasting is an important cause for inaccuracy forecasting, structured interviews with people who are responsible for forecasting can be designed. Hence, the researcher can better understand what was going on and the nature of the problem. Meanwhile, by analyzing the interview data, the researcher may discover that there are other important reasons that lead to inaccurate forecasting.
In qualitative research, the researcher interprets the data by developing a description, analyzing data and finally drawing conclusions about its meaning theoretically. The characteristics of qualitative research (Rossman and Rallis, 1998) cited in Creswell are: 1) Qualitative research usually done in the field. Meaning that the researcher should go to the field of the research object in order to collect the primary data. In this case, researcher will be able to know and understand deeply about the research object and gain better experience and got more detail data. 2) Qualitative research uses data collective which involve the participant actively and sensitively in the study.
• Design your research studies that answers the questions that you want answered. • Write the type of research proposal and report that puts you in command and control of the content of the research as well as the way in which the research should be done. 2 THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH Research is a process through which new knowledge is discovered. A theory, such as a theory of motivation, or development, or learning, for example, helps us to organize this new information into a coherent body, a set of related ideas that explain events that have occurred and predict events that may happen. High-quality research is characterized by many different attributes, many of which tend to be related to one another and also tend to overlap.