Characteristics Of Liberalism

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Liberalism is a variety of political philosophies, schools of thought in international relations theory or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality. As a political school of thought, liberalism can revolve around three interrelated principles; rejection of power politics, accentuation of mutual benefits and international cooperation and the implementation of international organizations and nongovernmental actors for shaping state preferences and policy choices. Liberalism is an ideology and due to the changing views of historical persons, who have each viewed themselves to be Liberals, is difficult to define precisely. There are five agreed defining tenants of Liberalism. The most important of these, percolating through
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"It owes something to Stoicism and to Christianity; it has been inspired by scepticism and by a fideistic certainty of divine revelation and it has exalted the power of reason" (John Gray). Apart from its multiple sources, liberalism is also sensitive to the variation of time and conditions. French liberalism and English liberalism have many significant differences. Classical liberalism and modern liberalism are notably different in many ways. For these reasons, liberalism is sometimes seen as a meta-ideology, which consists of rival beliefs and values. To further analyse the ideology of liberalism firstly we need to differentiate classical liberalism, which centres mostly on economic liberty, and modern liberalism which centres mostly on progress, chiefly social…show more content…
The philosophical justification of classical liberalism is supplemented by utilitarianism. It was put forward by Jeremy Bentham, James Mill and J.S. Mill. They believe that the goal of a society is to obtain "the greatest happiness of the greatest number". In achieving this goal, a representative government which upholds liberty is necessary. (Gingell, Little and Winch 225-228)
Classical liberalism had a profound impact on the politic throughout the centuries. It inspired the creation of unified, independent, constitutional states which based on representative principles and the rule of law. In After the Glorious Revolution, under influence of the Whigs, who was the precursor of today 's Liberal Party, precepts of classical liberalism had long governed England. In France, liberal goals were achieved in 1871 by the Third Republic. Another significant success was the found of the United States in 1776.
In the economic realm, numerous feudal restrictions on manufacturing and internal commerce were abolished. Meanwhile, tariffs and restrictions on imports intended to protect domestic manufactures were put into
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