INTRODUCTION Osteoarthritis of knee joint is supposed to be the most prevalent chronic joint disease. The incidence of osteoarthritis of knee is on a rise because of many factors like complex mechanics of knee joint, high prevalence of obesity and increased life expectancy which leads to increase in number of older individuals. Knee joint is subjected to excessive stress as it is used in almost all activities of daily living. Knee is important for activities like walking, climbing stairs, and rising from a chair, sitting, squatting and other activities. Chronic pain of knee joint may cause inability to perform daily activities.
The composition of the long bone itself mainly of collagen fibers and an inorganic bone mineral in form of small crystals, In vivo bone (living bone in the bone the body) contains 10% and 20% of water of its dry mass, approximately 60-70% is bone mineral. Structure of the long bone are those that they are longer than they are wide. They are one of five types of bones, long short flat irregular and seasmoid. Long bones especially the femur and tibia are subjected to most of the load during daily activities and they are crucial for skeletal mobility. The long bone is that it allows movement , particularly in the limbs eg the femur (thigh bone) tibia and fibula (lower leg bones) humerus (upper arm bone), the radius and the ulna (lower arm).
Many individuals experience stiffness or neck pain in the neck regularly. In numerous cases, it is because of overuse, normal wear and tear, or poor posture. At times, neck pain can result from an injury sustained from a whiplash, contact sports, or a fall. In the majority of the cases, neck pain is not a severe condition and it can be relieved in just a few days. In other cases, neck pain can be an indication of a very serious illness or injury, and thus you may require urgent medical care.
force or impact) to cause much movement between the fragments of bone. The damage may be difficult to find and identify, even by using x-rays. Sometimes another set of images is taken 7-10 days after the first "check-up". A hairline fracture is sometimes referred to colloquially as a “crack” or “cracked bone”. A fatigue result can result from mechanical stresses applied to a bone too frequently, more often that the bone structure can withstand without sustaining incremental damage / weakness over time.
The Spine: Composed of 33 vertebrae, the spine consists of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 fused sacral and 4 fused coccygeal vertebrae. The width of the vertebral bodies generally increases craniocaudally, except at T1-T3. The normal curve of spine includes: 1. Cervical lordosis (20-400) 2. Thoracic kyphosis (20-400), 3.
The Patellofemoral and knee joints would be open, but she has small bone spurs projecting from the patella, going posteriorly towards the femur and superiorly from the tibia towards the femur. The patient is under rotated because the lateral condyle is not completely superimposed over the medial condyle of the femur. The medial condyle is the one that appears “smaller” because it is closest to the image receptor. The lateral condyle is more posterior than the medial so the patient needs to be rotated more. The knee joint is not in the center of the collimated field.
It is commonly caused by sudden stretching, repeated and overused a tendon with strain of a particular movement over time which injures the connection between the tendon and its bone or muscle. In the majority of cases, tendinitis develops in people whose jobs or hobbies involve repetitive movements; aggravating the tendons. There are several tendons in the shoulder that can be overused or stretched, and usually a shoulder will have more than one injury at a time which can also contribute to elbow and arm problems when its moved. Some people may find it painful to lie on the affected shoulder at night. Achilles tendinitis may also be caused by ill-fitting shoes, or those that do not properly support the foot.
When the tendon is overused chronically without given adequate time to heal, tendinosis known as Jumper’s Knee can occur in response to the damage. Conventionally, jumper’s knee can be noted as a patellofemoral pain syndrome. The teno-osseous junctions, where the attachments of the quadriceps tendon and patellar tendon occur, are the impacted areas under this condition. The described patellar pain affects the quadriceps tendon and patellar tendon inserted either into the tibial tuberosity or the patella (Curwin and Stanish, 1984). Thus, by definition, histologically, jumper’s knee
Hip dysplasia (HD) is associated with an abnormal joint structure and laxity of the muscles, connective tissue (CT) and ligament that normally support the joint. As this joint laxity develops, the articular surfaces on the femur and in the acetabulum loose contact with each other. This separation within the joint is known as a subluxation and will cause drastic changes in both the size and shape of the articular surfaces. All dysplastic dogs are born with normal hips but the soft tissues surrounding the joint develops abnormally due to the dogs genetic make-up, and possibly other environmental factors, which is what causes the subluxation (1). The subluxation and remodeling of the hip is what leads to the symptoms that are associated with HD.
Overuse knee injuries including muscle strain, tendonitis and bursitis may develop gradually over days or weeks. Pain is often mild and intermittent in the beginning and worsens over time. When muscles and tendons are stressed even slightly beyond their capabilities, microscopic tears occur. These tears must be given a chance to heal before subjected to the same activity to avoid overuse injury. Treat overuse injuries early to prevent chronic problems.