The mangrove ecosystem The functions of mangroves Mangrove forests are diverse types of trees, shrubs and palms that live in waterlogged saline habitats in the tropics and subtropics areas. There are approximately 80 kinds of mangroves found around the world (Saenger et al.,1983), most of them are found between latitudes 32° N and 38° S. Mangroves are valuable coastal resources which are essential to our socio-economic development. According to Kathiresan (2011), mangrove forests have the functions as follows: 1. Mangrove forests provide long-lasting or temporary habitats for lots of marine and terrestrial species. A wide range of marine species are found in mangroves such as crabs, crocodile and different types of fish.
A portion of water also seeps into the ground and can help maintain the water table. Wetlands that occur along the shoreline of lakes or along the banks of rivers and streams help protect the shoreline soils from the erosive forces of waves and currents (Barbier, 1994). The wetland plants act as a buffer zone by dissipating the water’s energy and providing stability by binding the soils with their extensive root systems. Wetlands are generally rich in biodiversity, they have many environmental gradients that contain a large number of habitats and many species of plants and animals that are completely dependent on them (Nyman, 2011). Many species of birds, fish, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians rely on wetland habitat for breeding, foraging and cover.
The coastal ecosystem of southern Luzon is rich and varied. A number of coastal ecosystems that have socioeconomic, cultural and ecological significance include bays e.g., Batangas, Balayan, Tayabas and Ulugan bays; and marine corridors such as the Verde Island Passage. Mangrove forests were reported to provide various services commonly ranging from socioeconomic to ecological services. Socioeconomic services include provision of food and other products for human consumption or as a source of income. Common products are wood for charcoal or as housing material, fish, clams and shellfish; other products are honey, vinegar and traditional medicine.
(II) Protection Layer - As green roofs contain living and growing materials, a protection layer and a root barrier are one of the most important elements of the assembly (Luckett, 2009). As roots grow they can penetrate the waterproofing membrane and create leak locations. The root barrier placed above the membrane ensures that no roots pass through and harm the membrane (NCRA, 2007). A protection course shields the waterproofing membrane from damage after it has been installed. Image of a root barrier (Weiler & Barth, 2009) (III) Drainage and retention Layer – A drainage course allows moisture to move laterally through the green roof system.
Proposed Research Work Goal: To assess birds and macro invertebrate assemblage in the coastal wetlands of Gulf of Kachchh to develop correlation model for rapid monitoring of wetlands Background information: Based on discoveries of our satellites, it appears that water is a unique substance in our discovered universe. Wetlands are areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas (Cowardin, 1979). Wetlands are extremely important throughout the world for several reasons such as wildlife protection, recreation, pollution and sediment control, flood prevention and food production. Wetland supports a rich biological diversity, as per millennium ecosystem assessment, more than one billion people are directly dependent on wetlands and 40% of the world’s species occurs in wetlands (www.milleniumessessment.com).
Mangroves are groups of shrubbery , consists of a variety of different plants, that are located on saline costal sediment habitats. Mangroves are indigenous to tropical and subtropical ecosystems and are primarily found between the latitudes 25 degrees north and 25 degrees south (http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/mangroves.html). There are over 80 different types of plants that can exist in mangrove forests. The mangrove plants are all Since
Mangrove forests are located mainly along the tropical coastlines worldwide however, in the Caribbean there are only four types of mangrove species found in different zones depending on their ability to tolerate saline concentration. These trees possess a specialized root system which enables them to facilitate species habitat, nursery ground for juveniles, protect the coral reefs and seagrass bed from sedimentation and as a wave buffer from natural disasters. For the purpose of this literature review the importance of mangroves as nursery grounds in the Caribbean will be studied. Nurseries grounds are characterized as the habitat where juvenile reef fishes reside until they reach maturation (MacDonald, 2009). In addition, the nursery provides juveniles with protection from predation and unlimited food supply of algae and crustaceans.
What are Wetlands? The areas of land where water covering the soil are the wetlands. These areas include mudflats, bogs, fens, and peatlands, swamps, marshes, mangroves, coral reefs, lakes, lagoons saltmarshes. There may be natural or artificial wetlands and the water that is present in the wetlands may be stagnant or flowing. It could also be fresh, brackish or saline.
The present generation of inhabitants in the coastal communes of Demak district have specialised in aquaculture, some people still practice traditional fisheries and most lost skills in cropping rice. Therefore aquaculture offers the best option for short term improvements in livelihoods. Several species that are already cultured in Demak - tiger shrimp, white legged shrimp, milkfish and tilapia – in particular offer opportunities to enhance productivity and income. This is because their market price is high, they are not sensitive to pollution/salinity and/or they are suitable for cultivation in extensive poly-culture systems. The latter is important because this allows implementation of so-called multi-trophic aquaculture systems in which farmers stock multiple species which stimulates nutrient recycling and hence limits pollution.
The marine habitats in Cambodia are divided by three which are coral reefs, mangrove forests which known as inundated forest and sea grass. These habitats mainly are covered by The Departments of Fisheries. Many Cambodians usually depends on coral reefs for livelihood and nutrition, with high demand placed on many commercially valuable species dependant on these habitats. In addition, these habitats of coral reefs are very suitable for development of eco-tourism because these areas provide much potential for their economy of the country. Until the day where the studied that carried out by the Danida funded Project on Environmental Coastal Zone management in Cambodia implemented in the Provinces and Municipalities of Kep, Sihanoukville, and Koh Rong Province (Nelson et al ,1999 ), the National University of Singapore ( Chou et al, 2003) and through the UNEP/ GEF of South China Sea Project.