One of the most noticeable developments has taken place in spelling. For instance, words as “Myn”, “knyghtes”, “lyf” and “whyche”, show that the ‘i’ was written as an ‘y’ in Middle English. This is a consequence of the phenomenon known as the Great Vowel Shift. In Old English, the “i” would have been pronounced as ‘ee’. However after
It took Dr.Johnson 9 years to put 42 thousand words in his dictionary and years later more and more words were being invented and in 1857 a new dictionary was in the making it took 70 years and 3 people to make it. Chapter eight “American English” was words borrowed from the Native Americans and words that was shared by the Dutch, the Germans and the Italians. Then later America discover
The Modern English language has a rich history, it develops and changes like many other world languages. The English language has mainly been influenced by Latin, Germanic and French over a period of two thousand years. The English Lexicon includes words from over 120 countries, however Latin, Germanic and Latin account approximately less than 30% each. The English language is second to none in the variety and amount of lexical words. The most penetrating influence on English in history is French during the Middle English period after the Norman conquests.
In the 18th century English grammar books were being published, which added a greater demand on vocabulary in vernacular. This demand increased as the vernacular lexicon began to stabilize. Dictionaries were still elementary with only a short meaning, synonym or commentary on a ward.it was the grammarians who were still making decisions about language usage. Grammarians had been experiencing within their own ranks for sometime. Many linguistics were afraid that the English would be corrupted, and some expressed the concern that what was being written at that time would would be unrecognizable to future generations.
Literature 1 (Journal article) Bilingualism in the Early Years: What the Science Says Krista Byers-Heinlein & Casey Lew-Williams Learning Landscapes Overview: The journal mainly focus on explaining questions regarding outcomes of bilingualism and appropriate methods to teach bilingual children which helps readers to approach bilingualism from the individual development aspect and compare bilingualism with monolingualism from micro aspect. Summary: In the journal, confusion on different languages shown by children is regarded as code-mixing and is stated that is a normal process of language development which is due to the limited vocabularies bilingual children have. Besides, it is suggested that high-quality, high-quantity, and balanced exposure
The third stage is codification which is the process of standardizing and developing a norm for a language codifying a language could be different from case to another and it depend on the stage of standardization that exists, it means to develop a writing system, pronunciation, syntax, set up official rules of grammar, orthography and vocabulary as well as publishing grammar books and dictionaries. The codification of English took its place by the 16th century , by public ate dictionaries and grammar books , most of them aims to teach the new English language to rural squires and to the welsh especially after the act of union between England and Walsh in 1536 . By the 16th and 17th century the writers start to write a Standard English codification affected the spoken form of the standard language. for example , received pronunciation " RB " was codified by the influence of education , especially in the 19th century public schools , then from the early 20th century by radio , cinema , and television (BBC English) . The codification of pronunciation stage started in the end of the 18th century, when elocutionists like Thomas Sheridan and John Walker produced understandable guides to correct pronunciation in the form of pronouncing dictionaries.
1.5 Research Method Research method is a process or procedure to get the goals of the research and find the answer for the problem. The research method of this study is consists of three elements including data source, method and technique of collecting data, and method and technique of analyzing data. 1.5.1 The Data Source Data source is the source from which data was obtained for the analysis in order to support the validity of this paper (Setiawan, 2010:5). The data in this study used primary data and directly taken from the novel. The form of data in this study is English idiomatic expressions and their meaning.
CHARACTERISTICS OF OLD ENGLISH: Old English was spoken by the people of the Angles, Saxon and Jutes. The period of this language was from 400 AD to 1100 AD. It is completely not understandable by the English people of modern era. The main basic characteristics of Old English are as follows: PRONUNCIATION: The main characteristic of Old English language is its pronunciation which is completely different from the pronunciation of modern English. This difference is only because of modification of long vowels.
They gave a lot of words to the English language and they were the first to put a fairly big influence on English. A few English words that comes from the Anglo Saxons are: Get, leg, is. The first Vikings arrived in Britian in 793, well that was when they started to invade Britain at least. As the Anglo Saxons, the Vikings also stayed in Britain for a good while. The Vikings didn’t influence English as much as the Anglo Saxons, but they did give English around 900 words.
Vietnamese were taught to spell the alphabet in French way, like : [bê] instead of [bờ] for “b”, [cê] instead of [cờ] for “c”… A lot of French loanwords were adapted by changing form of morpheme and phonology into Vietnamese (Alves, 2009, p.629). Below are some examples of French loanwords : Clothing : ba-đờ-xuy (pardessus), áo bờ lu (blouse), gi-lê (gilet), găng (gant), khăn