The first section of this chapter deals with the characteristics of the participants, sampling method and instruments .Then the treatment and the procedures used to collect data and analyze them are mentioned.
One hundred pre-university students (male) studying in Shahid Beheshti school participated in this study. In order to have a homogenous group the students were given a proficiency test. Sixty of them were selected .All the students were at the same age and level and all of them were native speakers of Persian.
3.3 Instruments Oxford Quick Placement test ,two questionnaires and essay writing were used in this study The first one is Oxford Quick Placement test in order to have a homogenous groups, , the second one is self efficacy in writing scale(SWS) and the third one is attitude towards writing questionnaire (WAQ).In addition to these questionnaires, the students were asked to write a short composition on the selected topic.
3.3.1 Oxford Quick Placement Test
Oxford quick placement test was used to have a homogenous groups. This test was consisted of 60 items. It was divided in two parts :part one (questions 1-40) was for all of the students; and part two (questions 41-60) was for those advanced ones .On the basis of this result the students were not allowed to start the second part. Out of one hundred students, sixty of them were selected. They were at the same level.
3.3.2 Self efficacy in Writing Scale(SWS)
The self efficacy questionnaire