(CITATION) Therefore, “comparative” literature, as its name suggests, presents an international perspective and helps to establish a connection between the “other” nations’ literary histories, movements, genres, theories and texts on the basis of the sociocultural functions of literature. However, by the reason of its dynamic and flexible nature, for many years, comparative literature has been a field that there are so many debates on it. Historically, Comparative Literature is widely recognized as According to Shahbazi and Termizi’s (2012) study; Across different literary periods, the controversies have shifted from issue to issue, highlighting or minimizing the role of the
for us to recognise that our world have changed a lot since centuries. I can say that especially the matter of identity and culture have reformed. Multiculturalism became something natural for example in England, France or Germany. Since all is changing rapidly around the world I think that every country should be prepared for the arrival of foreign people from different countries. That is why I would like to explain what the definitions of multicultural and multilingual are because multiculturalism and multilingualism have been quite new phenomenons for the whole society.
Second, is to explain how individuals, state or non-state actors interact with this system. Third, is to identify the downsides of globalization and last is to explain the role of the US in stabilizing this system and how this state became a key actor for globalization. To begin with, the new system of globalization is an encompassing process of change. It involves the inescapable march to new technology and democratization of various idea this is why the main perspective of globalization is “integration”. Moreover, the system of globalization could stand by its own feet since it has its own demographic pattern which explains why people from rural areas move to urban area just to follow the trend in the global scene, also it has its own dominant culture mainly the reason why it tends to homogenize
Gérard Genette brought the theory of intertextuality to a more structured stage. One of his influential works, Palimpsests: Literature in the Second Degree, introduces a new perspective on textual references. What has been referred to by other theorists as ‘intertextuality’, is now defined by a new term: ‘transtextuality’ (Latin ‘trans-’ – across, over; beyond; on the other side). This includes all kinds of relations between various texts, may they be explicit or inconspicuous, divided into five types: intertextuality, paratextuality, metatextuality, hypertextuality and architextuality. The first type is a narrowed phenomenon described under the same name by Kristeva.
The fundamental new ideas have then soon been adopted in other grammatical domains, too, in syntax (Grimshaw 1997) as well as in morphology (Wunderlich 2001). “The main innovations of OT can be summarized as follows: (i) Grammatical constraints can conflict with each other and are violable under certain conditions (not inviolable, as assumed before). (ii) Grammatical constraints are ordered according to their respective weight (not equally ranked). (iii) Different rankings of constraints are responsible for differences between individual grammars or languages. (What was formerly conceived as grammatical parameters is now reconstructed as constraints being differently ranked.)
The above mentioned word formation processes are the most frequent or important in the English language, but is is rarely the case that only one process occurs in one word. As we know, there were many ways to create new words like borrowing from other languages, blending together from several words or deriving from words that we already have. Gradually, the word is changed to a more familiar form that usually keeps its original meaning and some may change into a new word and meaning. Even the creative respelling, where the spelling of words is changed for products like coinage is considered to be one of these processes. Of course there are even more possibilities than those which were mentioned before.
This paper talks about the nature and scope of quasi-judicial authorities. What is Quasi-Judicial Authority The word quasi derived from two Latin words, Quam and Si’, quam means ‘as much as’ and Si means ‘if’. The meaning of prefix quasi is – ‘similar to but not exactly the same as’. Quasi-judicial action refers to those actions and powers exercised by executive/administrative authorities that are required to investigate, ascertain facts and draw conclusion. When administrative authorities acting as quasi-judicial authority, they do hearing and investigation and proclaim orders and judgment.
Indeed, different kinds of efforts are applied to achieve the desired intentions. And after a successful realization, lot of newness is introduced in the society. Usually, the cultural, natural and social dimensions in the societies in the world today are automatically re-shaped (Migdal 2001: 58). The kind of transformation and amendment that takes place can be either positive or negative, depending on the individual’s perspective. With the mentioned consideration, it is clear that if certain areas such as our nature, culture, religion and many others are negatively tampered with by modernity, the outcome can be harmful to mankind.
Shakespeare Subtitle Translating Shakespearean text is different to any other literary text. The language of Shakespeare’s era was complex to the modern ear and has a different style of syntax and lexiconic structure from contemporary English. This creates numerous challenges for translators, Baker (2011: 265) states that, translating Shakespeare involves various technical and linguistics problems to the translator such as, textual issues, ambiguous cultural hints, neologisms and archaisms and so on. One of the issues I had to deal with was the fact that the SL contained some old English word such as hath, nay and liom which I did not understand in the beginning, however, after an extensive search in online dictionaries their semantic meanings
One area of difficulty is that it is not clear when a person’s performance of, or a promise to perform, a pre-existing obligation can constitute good consideration. Generally the performance of an existing contractual obligation owed to the same party making new promise does not constitute good consideration. The old case of Stilk v Myrick had been established as the legal principle where the performance of an existing contractual duty possibly will not be good consideration for a new promise from the party to whom