Social Cognitive Theories

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Social-Cognitive Theories
One of the characteristics of social-cognitive theories is that the construction of knowledge is built on interactions with people and the world (Bertrand, 2003). These interactions are seen as affecting cognitive development. On the other hand, cognitive theory does not take social interaction into consideration. In social cognitive theory, there is an emphasis on social learning, situated context, interactions among individuals, participation, cooperation and socially shared cognition (Bertrand, 2003).
Lave and Wenger (1991) state that participation in social practice is the fundamental form of learning. The learning communities model centers on the advancement of the collective knowledge of the community, and in
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Social constructivists focus on the social nature of the learning process, as well as the reality that is constructed as a result of social interactions. Several research studies have concluded that the teacher’s attitude plays an important part in an overall learning process (O’Bien, 2007). Each day teachers are engaged in social interactions inherent in instruction, and these interactions will affect the attitudes of teachers. Measuring these attitudes as they are created is one of the objectives of this study.
Adherents of social constructivism feel most meaningful learning occurs when individuals are engaged in social activities with other human beings (McMahon, 1997 as cited by O’Bien, 2007). Social constructivism is based on the premise that the social world of the learner includes the learner, the teacher, friends, other students, and other people (Lawson, 2003).
Because the teacher plays such an important role in the education process, both in terms of what content is taught and what methods are used it, it seems that studying the underlying attitudes of teachers with the students in their classrooms would help teachers better understand the types of experiences that both students and social studies teachers have as well as the social interactions in the
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A proficiency test in social studies is also considered as an input in the study. This will serve as an instrument to assess the knowledge ability of the teachers in teaching social studies.
The process includes the development and validation of instructional model and learning in social studies. The results of the needs assessment may reveal the status of social science instruction in LHS of SUCs in Region I. This will become a logical basis for the formulation of training program for the social studies teachers. The training program of social studies teachers coupled with a validated learning plans for social studies would result to effective social studies teaching and learning process.
To determine the effectiveness of the learning plan and instructional model, it will be tried-out during the implementation of Training Program for Secondary Social Studies Teachers. Pretest and posttest will be administered before and after the training
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