In the article, “Move Over Boys”, by Sara Maratta, she argues that women have very limited roles in the sports industry, and that the lack of gender equality is present because of the preexisting stereotypes about women’s involvement in sports. According to Maratta “Female athletes are just as capable and accomplished as the men, yet fans do not give them the chance to prove that they deserve to be admired and followed” (Maratta 539). Maratta's point is that our society depreciates women in sports, because we have the misconception that men are suppose to be better than women in everything they do. Maratta also claims that female athletes must look feminine at all times to be acknowledged in the sports industry (Maratta 539). In other words,
K.L. Broad, an associate professor at the University of Florida and author of The Gendered Unapologetic: Queer Resistance In Women's Sport, researches, “… how women’s rugby in the early 1990s can be understood as a site of queer resistance in sport, with the attendant controversies of any queer act” (K.L. Broad 182). She argues that the underlying, “assumption has been, ‘sports are masculine; therefore, women in sports are masculine; therefore, women in sports are lesbians’” (182). This assumption plainly illustrates how women, lesbian or not, are discriminated against for even playing a sport. Broad clearly goes into rugby, as that is a very rugged and physical sport, and studies how these women interact with their male and female
Ditching the dainty, damsel in distress, women began to seek activities that promoted strength. In a magazine of the time, a woman writer describes women athletics, “With the single exception of the improvement in the legal status of women, their entrance into the realm of sports is the most cheering thing that has happened to them in the century just past.” (MP 132). Feeling empowered by their new love of sports and victory, women step out from the background with sports and strong, outspoken women become role models for women during this
These three are probably most important because they are sports that both genders play but the women’s side of the game still gains a lot of media coverage, definitely not as much as their male counterparts but more than other women’s sports. A woman competing with men is an on going issue and the differing analyses from liberal and conservative parties will be an eternal debate. Women should perhaps have the power to decide whether they want to compete against men, especially in non-contact sports. Furthermore, limitations on women’s combative sports should be up to the individual and the risk of hampering the reproductive organs would be solely down to the woman
Even though female athletes are now becoming more accepted, they are still being challenged with a stigma known as “the image problem”, for example, all female athletes are lesbians. To avoid this “problem” the media employs a feminine apologetic in which they heterosexualize female athletes through emphasizing their relationships with men. In “Blood Sweat and Jeers” Knight mentions that female athletes continue to be confronted with the “image problem” or homophobia. She also notes that, “There is an underlying ear in society that participating in sports will encourage homosexuality or even convert female athletes into lesbians and prevent them from fulfilling their stereotypical domestic and maternal roles.” I strongly agree with this statement
Whether it be the amount and type of coverage they receive, the sexualisation, stereotypical views they have to fight against, or the failures they may come across, the media is there to cover it. Unfortunately, women have become a victim to an increased amount of challenges when facing the media, though in this period of time in the world, we are working towards a more equal society. This can impact the future generations of athletes and how they believe their efforts in their sport will be seen. If media does not begin to equal out between the genders, it is possible that women’s sports will decrease even
There is a prolonged history marked by partition and discernment in women partaking in sports. On the other hand, female athletes and essential enhancements for gender equality and the empowerment of women also fulfill this history. Women in sport leadership shape attitudes concerning women’s abilities as decision-makers. In addition, there is a substantial influence to society development. The Federal Legislation generally referred to as Title IX, made it mandatory that American society recognizes a woman’s right to partake in sports.
Sylvia Plath’s idea for male dominance frames Maria Burton Nelson’s argument about gender expectations for women’s sports. Using an anecdote as her title “I won, I’m sorry”; it explains why both Nelson and Plath have somewhat similar arguments. Nelson’s argument is that females are being “attacked” by males while they are playing sports and Plath’s argument is that males should be first in anything and everything. Nelson uses Plath’s quote about her letting the man be first, gets the readers angry, because some modern women do not think like Plath.
interactionist - seeks to discover how athletes and coaches make sense of their identidy exploring the key values associated with sports subcultures through the process of interaction. Feminist- explores the notion that sports may reproduce or contest gender stereotypes in society. Critical- Indicates that sports are socially constructed and can be understood by adopting a hisorical context. Highlights the importance that sports can reflect society but simultaneously challenge the way in which social life is organised.
Judith Butler (1990) implemented a structure for understanding how hegemonic femininity is constructed and duplicated in women 's sport. Butler 's work focuses on gender and Krane (2001) applies this notion to understanding heterosexuality in sport. Butler suggests gender is a performative act in a way that individuals engage in behaviours that are seen as acceptable and appropriate for their gender but adds that this performance is not entirely voluntary on the individual 's part. Society has a set of unwritten guidelines known by everyone as how males and females should act and those who fail to comply with these culturally built guidelines are 'punished through negative social sanctions.’ (Butler, 1990:140).
Sports that are labelled as feminine are often seen to be appropriate for women and is why once a Men plays a feminine sport they’re seen as gay (Koivula, 2001) sport such as figure skating, gymnastics, swimming and netball (Coakley & Pike, 2009). Coakley & Pike (2009), also explained that Men who are seen as nurturing and supportive of other people are defined as weak and a Women job, as they’re expected to play the support role for Men in sport. Once a girl decides to start playing sport, they may be pushed away from progressing by their parents, as society has made them believe that being a girl and having any involvement in sport, will attract lesbians and automatically make them one as well, which will create fear in the girls mind and make them conform to their traditional gender roles in society (Coakley & Pike, 2009) Judging Men and Women on the gender and their chosen goes against the CPSU safeguarding standard 5, as the criteria states that “the responsibility of adults and children to treat one another with dignity, respect, sensitivity and fairness” (CPSU, 2006. pp. 9).
The social theories that I have chosen to focus on are Conflict Theory and Feminist Theory. I have decided to study these concepts as they share both similar and contradictory ideas of sport participation and power in sport. I will also explore the topic of disability and sport in an attempt to illustrate the great need for integration of athletes with disabilities into mainstream clubs and teams. Finally, I will investigate the area of sexuality and sport, a subject which I believe has remained very much concealed until recent times. Conflict theory states that “social order is based on economic interests and the use of economic power to exploit labour”.
Many studies have proven to show that male sports have been portrayed and highlighted more often than female sports (Morris, 2016). Personally, as a student athlete at Seoul Foreign School, I have also noticed the difference in attendance for female student games in contrary to male student games. It is perplexing to know that approximately 40 years ago, women and girls were deprived of the opportunity to play sports at all. Including universities, colleges, high schools, junior high schools and major events. Therefore, gender inequality is prominent within
Radical feminists thought women domination is more significunt to deal with, as compared to other types of domination (Jaggar and Rothenberg 1984). They concider that a society is a compound of a number of sub-groups. These subgroups are structured on the basis of natural cause or on the basis of social relations, e.g sex, caste, race, age, gender. Within each division some persons have authority over others and in this relation of domination and subordination, dominants demoralized their subordinates. Correspondingly, in patriarchal arrangement men learnt to manage the women (Lerners 1986).
Women have come a long way in the fight for equality – in the 1970s women fought for things like equal pay and equal opportunities in the workplace, yet this is still an issue today. This is even relevant to sport as sportsmen earn more than sportswomen for doing the same job. For years’ gender inequality has plagued professional sports, with people suggesting women’s sport is of a lower quality and women will never be as good as their male counterparts. On my cover I decided to blow up a picture of Olympic gold medallist Caster Semenya.