By 1860 a majority of African Americans lived and worked in the Deep South, the lands that stretched from Georgia to Texas.” Though 1800 and 1860 the African American population moved throughout the country to new established lands in the south and southwest areas for a few major factors. The change in the countries cash crop drove the slave market to new areas of the country. The crops effected the economy within the Chesapeake area so a new source of revenue was established. The new revenue came about with the need of slaves to work the new areas so the domestic slave trade was born. The slave trade contributed to about 1 million slaves being migrated around the
Expansion of slave trade was caused by the high demand for cash crops like tobacco and sugar. American colonies were in need of a cheap labor force and saw Africans as fit for the job since there were so many of them. Indentured servitude was just not working for the colonies because of the intense work needed to be done to farm cash crops. Another cause and effect argument Nash uses is that the English entry into the slave trade business allowed southern plantation owners to buy slaves more and for cheaper than ever before. But how did all these slaves get to the colonies?
In the Caribbean, slavery was preferred; but in Russia, serfdom ruled. While Caribbean slavery and Russian serfdom are similar in regard to economics costs, they differ in the cultural details and agricultural productions. Both Caribbean slavery and Russian serfdom provided very cheap labor and economically benefited their mother government; however, the two methods came about in different ways. When the Spanish and Portuguese first began colonizing the Caribbean and South America, they stumbled upon a rich supply of native. They soon coerced the natives into working on sugar and tobacco plantations as slaves—the conditions were horrendous and life was short and brutal.
There, labour was needed and labour was available but in different places. The need for labour sprang from the inherent demographic difference between the Americas and South Asia, from the impact of European expansion and from the specific labor tasks that the colonists required. The Atlantic slave trade paid much attention to the role of the slave trade in British North America and West Indian colonies. According to Kenneth Morgan (2007: 18) “the transatlantic slave trade was an important business enterprise within the British Empire for nearly a century and a half, from the restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660 until the trade was abolished in 1807”. In this period the slave trade and its capital turnover made a substantial contribution to the economic development of the British Empire.
The Spanish colonies and the New England colonies were different in the resources the colonies collected in order to achieve economic success. The main source of economic gain in Central and South America was gold and silver because there was a plentiful amount of the resources in the Americas. As time went on and the gold and silver resources depleted, the Spanish turned to sugar plantations, which are large scale farms. New England made their money by trading away raw materials, such as timber, furs, and textiles like wool and cotton. Later New England made a large portion of their money from fishing.
Colonial America by the mid 1700’s consisted of three major regions. However the New England area and the Southern regions were the most important. The New England region included the colonies of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. The Southern Region, also known as the Chesapeake Colonies, included the Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Although both the regions consisted of British colonies, each region differed in reasons for settlement, religious views, and economic activity and its connection to the amount of slavery in the region.
In Eric Williams ' work titled “Slavery and Capitalism”, he describes how the development of slavery marked several social and economic changes in society, especially in the nature of social hierarchies and relationships. Sven Beckert, in “The Empire of Cotton”, reiterates Williams ' argument by describing cotton cultivation in America, of which the backbone was slavery. In this economic system, production thrived because of the subordination of the labour force. Slavery was a cost effective method of employing labour. For instance, in the case of America, large quantities of cotton were produced at a cheaper cost, and as a result, were sold in the market for low prices.
The farmland was so large that they needed slaves and servants to work on the land. This need for labor brought about the slave trade in which African slaves were sold at high prices to rich plantation owners. In the Chesapeake region the ratio of indentured servants was above 40 percent. (Hawke, 120) SInce, more tobacco was cultivated the need for labor was high compared to the New England. The tobacco farming made Chesapeake different than the New England.
The Africans who were enslaved were generally prisoners of war or captives from slave raids. “As the demand for slaves grew, so did the practice of systematic slave raiding, which increased in scope and efficiency with the introduction of firearms to Africa in the 17th century. By the 18th century, most African slaves were acquired through slave raids, which penetrated farther and farther inland.” Those unlucky enough to be captured in certain invasions were forced to march certain paths, sometimes for a few hundred miles, to markets on the coast to be traded for simple materials in return. From the mid-fifteenth to the late-nineteenth century, European and American slave sellers obtained roughly 12
Machines such as the cotton gin required extensive labor and African Americans had supplied the labor. There were many more jobs which required inexpensive labor. This is when slavery had raised again after the constitution of 1787. The main issues during the age of realism was slavery. Slaves were forced to work for their master in order to survive, they went through harsh punishments and abuse.
The Northerners did not need slaves for their economy, but the Southerners could not make any profit without cotton or slaves. In the 1860’s, the North had twice as many railroads as the South, and the South had a bigger cotton production because of their slave population (Document A). This demonstrates how the Union maintained an industrial economy and the Confederacy
With the fast growing of the cotton industry, plantation owners are expanding their profits, and increasing the use of cheap labors (slave labors). This a result further separate the North and South states. While the northern states economic depended on the industrial revolution such as factory and textile mills, the southern states were mainly agricultural dependency. Second reason the war broke out is because of the debates over slave and non-slave states
Slaves could pay their way out of slavery but it was also extremely rare. Almost all of the African race were enslaved and remained enslaved until they died. To buy a passage aboard a ship to America an immigrant had to pay about a year’s worth of wages or they could trade their servitude for the trip. Many people wanted to come to the New World because they made more
Because of that, northern colonies were more democratic and egalitarian than the one’s in the south. The south colonies were influenced by the dream of achieving great wealth and their economy and government were focused on that exact motive. Agriculture dominated the south with its ability to produce exceptional wealth for plantation owners. However, they were in need of labor and so they “made all men their slaves in hopes of recompenses.” (Doc. F) Many Englishmen brought over indentured servants from Europe who served as the foundation of the labor force for plantations.
They used competing tribes to capture each other to sell as slaves to the northern colonies. In this way, the English were able to conquer more tribal lands with less manpower than the Spanish. This practice was very common in the Carolinas and eventually made its way to Georgia and Florida. As the natives used goods, guns, and rum from the English to