In the book “Four theories of Press” (Siebert, Peterson and Schramm) it’s been stated that “pure libertarianism is antiquated, out dated and obsolete.” That paved way for replacement of Libertarian theory with the Social responsibility theory. Social responsibility theory allows free press without any censorship but at the same time the content of the press should be discussed in public panel and media should accept any obligation from public interference or professional self regulations or both. The theory lies between both authoritarian theory and libertarian theory because it gives total media freedom in one hand but the external controls in other hand. Here, the press ownership is private and media have an obligation to the public that amount to a form of public stewardship. The social responsibility theory moves beyond the simple “Objective” reporting (facts reporting) to “Interpretative” reporting (investigative reporting).
Typically, being a libertarian means to be socially liberal and fiscally conservative or you support economic and social freedoms (parks). More specifically, what does it mean to be a libertarian according to David Boaz? According to David Boaz, to be a libertarian means to be an advocate for freedom because “libertarianism is the view that each person has the right to live his life in any way he chooses so long as he respects the equal rights of others (6).” He characterizes libertarianism as “indispensable”, an indispensable framework for the future because it has limitless possibilities for all individuals (374). Although the current political debate is between libertarianism and social democracies, the philosophy of libertarianism is not new. In fact, the philosophy and its philosophers, John Locke.
Libertarians believe that each person owns his own life and property and has the right to make his own choices as to how he lives his life and uses his property – as long as he simply respects the equal right of others to do the same.” (theadvocates.org). Libertarians believe in three policies, no paternalism, no morals legislation, and no redistribution of income or wealth (Sandel,59). No paternalism, is against the laws that protect individuals from harm, so essentially it’s saying that if an individual decides to partake in reckless behavior and no one but the individual performing the risky behavior is harmed or affected, there should be no laws preventing the individual from performing that behavior (for example, not wearing a seatbelt). No
While the uses and gratifications theory primarily represents a bottom-up approach, examining the motivations behind the interaction of people with media, institutional mediatization can be seen as a top-down approach. It argues that culture and society increasingly depend on media and that institutions within society are altered through their logic (Bolin, 2014). Moreover, "media have become integrated into the operations of other social institutions, while they also have acquired the status of social institutions in their own right" (Bolin, 2014, p. 177). It shows that media influence social spheres at the same time from the inside and outside, but are never truly separated as they are developed in a preexisting cultural framework. The case
The Republican Theory Thus far we have been uncovering different views and perspectives of the universe within the sociological studies. These have included the Utilitarian Theory and the Liberal Theory of Justice. Now our readings have taken us beyond these theories, and has introduced us to an entire new principle, The Republican Theory. Although the theory itself has the same name as a political party within the United States, it should not be confused with the same beliefs of those in the Republican party. The Republican Theory, or form of government, is one where the power is placed in the people, mainly through representatives whom are delegated by the people.
BGPA104 Political Theory Essay Name: So Ka Chon (Kasper) Student ID: S-B4-1950-4 Since 17th century, the idea of liberalism has been germinated in Western philosophy. During the Age of Enlightenment, it has widespread the whole European Continent and even to the “Thirteen Colony” where the later America is. Liberalism has the roots in the Western history during the time of the Enlightenment. After the American War of Independence and the French Revolution, liberty has been practiced in reality on nations since it was only a philosophy on the paper. Government that presents the ideology of liberalism has formed and accepted by the civil.
5.1 Feminist Media Theory In defining media studies, South African scholar Buiten (2010:80) states that, “broadly speaking, feminist media studies can be said to be the study of the media through a feminist lens.” Buiten’s definition suggests that feminist media studies can only be viewed through a “feminist lens” thus implying that feminist theory is used to analyse and question the media. However media has been viewed through various lenses such as race and class by media discourse scholars such as
1. Introduction Liberalism refers to an ideology which was first spoken about by John Locke. As he mentioned the rights of the individual to have property, freedom, health and life(Cahn,2005:247). Later This essay aims to offer a critical review on the concept of neoliberalism. The essay shall begin by offering the reader a brief view on liberalism.
The struggle for control of the mass media is concentrated on controlling behavior, any individuals, any mass. The power of the media is created on the powerlessness of the audience to take a critical stance towards the information broadcast by media. Subtle methods of media with “beautifully packaged” disinformation often imperceptibly are accepted without doubt. Such social perception allows the media to keep the public trust. Otherwise, their influence on the public opinion would be negligible.
In some mass media, like newspaper and magazines, there tends to be many media and political bias. The media sociologist Herbert Gans found eight representative value are exhibited in the stories that he studied. The values are: “ethnocentrism, altruistic democracy, responsible capitalism, small-town pastoralism, individualism, moderatism, social order, and leadership” (Hanson 45). This essay will mainly discuss four values of them through five stories. I believe these journalistic values could help people to understand some biases in these media and improve people’s abilities of critical thinking.