“The Triumph of the City” by Edward Glaeser gives insight into factors that can make an urban center thrive economically and culturally as well. A city that provides a conducive environment for people to live in ultimately leads to its development. Cities such as Paris and New York are a reflection of successful cities in the book. They offer a business-friendly environment and job opportunities as well. However, they too face challenges of rapid urbanization such as high-cost of living and congestion.
My topic which is the urban poor and their unsure uniqueness basically it relates that in this modern world the concept of urbanization is increasing day by day. It is accepted to be a one good step but finishing the rural area and converting it to an urban area is increasing the rate of people being urban poor. The urban growth is attributed to both natural population growth, and rural to urban migration. Urbanization contributes to constant economic growth which is serious to poverty reduction. The economies of scale and collection in cities attract investors and entrepreneurs which is good for overall economic development.
The population of major cities was growing with an increasing ease. In the early 20th century, there were 72% second or third generation immigrants There was an evident change in America and its society. Industrialization was taking place and it was very noticeable in the infrastructure and in the culture. A lot of factories, new buildings and places for entertainment like cinemas have been built. Also, the difference between the urban and the villages was changing even further, including the difference in the attitude within the family values, attitude about sex and gender roles were significantly evolving.
Cities improve due to innovation, but humans residing in them may not. The Industrial Revolution was a period in time where new inventions helped labor become less taxing and more efficient in the South. On the other hand, the North developed urban cities, which attracted many people. Urban cities had become the epitome of civilization: ease of life and wealth was present, but not available to everyone. To elaborate, these urban cities provided job opportunities to women.
The concentration of population in urban areas and the subsequent urbanization are world-wide phenomena. The various effects of urbanization have been studied since the 19th century and were often considered a problem that could be, and should be, controlled via planning and policies. This kind of approach has its roots in physicalism, a concept that urban problems could be solved by shaping the physical urban environment (Batty & Marshall, 2009). Ever since the 19th century, with the rise of Urbanism as a science (Soria y Puig, 1999), planning and policies aimed at manipulating the physical environment were seen as the solution to controlling the effects caused by urban growth. However, as urbanization is of great complexity, affecting the
Urbanization is a progress to future and modernity. The urban growth has caused the infrastructure and quality of life becoming intolerable. This is in regards of housing, water, sewerage, transport, electricity, community, security, open spaces and air quality. In terms of sustainability, it depends on how dwellers manage the situation. For example, different people have different perspective such as in terms of transportation, people may choose to walk or to drive their own car.
City centers have to constantly be maintained and modernized. They have to be exactly what the people need at all times and have to “be the oldest and the newest, the most fixed and the most dynamic at the same time,” according to Koolhaas. The city is then dependent on this city center and a city should never be dependent on a specific area. A “Generic City” is much more efficient by being exactly what
Important facilities such as hospitals were built improving the health and survival rates of inhabitants. A variety of jobs were available and the standard of living of most inhabitants were improved. Access to goods and services adds to convenience and the range of items available. Urbanization was a period of time when we learned to live with both the good and bad aspects of life, just like any other period in history. What made urbanization so special was that many modern practices and things we take for granted today, was developed during this time.
The green belt district included all the peripheral area to have a check on the development in those areas. The rural areas were supposed to be developed as urban villages. Each planning district was supposed to be divided into planning areas, with each planning district to maintain its distinct character with the assistance of development control regulations. The land use plan also mentions the character of certain land and building uses in the matters of their location, capacity & area requirements. Like government and semi government office, commercial, sub city centre, district centre, industries, tourism, and residential.
CHAPTER TWO: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK/LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction Urban areas globally are expanding at an alarming rate due to a combination of factors such as population growth, economic growth and transformation, creation of new employment opportunities, improvement in transport infrastructure, outward spread of urban activities, as well as the decline of traditional rural economies. (Piorr et al., 2010) In fact, OECD (1979) stated that: the economic growth and physical growth of urban areas are not confined within urban boundaries but spread into much wider areas surrounding urban centres creating peri-urban settlements. These newly emerging peri-urban settlements are the sites of the most dynamic changes which create an interface