Characteristics Of Young Learners

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1.3. Teaching Speaking for Young Learners 1.3.1. Young Learner The age of students is the main factor in the decision about how to teach and what to teach. Students of different ages have different needs, competencies, and cognitive skills in learning. It might expect the student of primary age to acquire much of a foreign language for instance through play, whereas for adult students, it expects a greater use of abstract thought. Sarah Philips (1993:5) stated that young learners are children from the first year of formal schooling (five/ six years old to eleven/ twelve years of ages. Young learners are students who learn in kindergarten or elementary school. It can be estimated that young learner is the student from kindergarten until the sixth grade of elementary school. 1.3.2. Characteristics of Young Learners in Learning There are famous theories can be applied in Teaching English for Young Learners (TEYL) classroom situation by some expert. According to Vygotsky (1962), Children learn through social interaction. Children construct knowledge through other people, through interaction with teachers and their friend. Teachers mediate the world for children through playing, stories, questions, ideas, and experiences. Teachers work actively with children in the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD: difference between the child 's capacity to solve problems on his own and his capacity to solve them with assistance). Then, Piaget (1970) mentioned that children are active
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